+1 Recommend
1 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Comparative Results Between “Epi-Off” Conventional and Accelerated Corneal Collagen Crosslinking for Progressive Keratoconus in Pediatric Patients

      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.



          The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of epi-off conventional and accelerated corneal collagen cross-linking in the treatment of progressive keratoconus in pediatric patients up to 4 years after treatment.

          Patients and methods

          Conventional (standard) CXL epi-off technique was performed in 37 eyes (S-CXL group) and accelerated CXL in 27 eyes (A-CXL group). Refraction, keratometry, cylindrical equivalent, spherical equivalent, slit lamp examination, pachymetry, corneal tomography, anterior segment ocular coherence tomography and visual acuity were performed up to 4 years.


          In the S-CXL group: the flat K values decreased from 47.41±3.39 D to 45.36±3.62 D at 4 years (p=0.004); steep K decreased from 51.98±4.11 to 50.21±4.81 D at 4 years (p=0.0078); mean K decreased with 1.99 D at 4 years (p=0.009). In the A-CXL group: the flat K values decreased from 46.97±4.17 D to 44.97±4.24 D at 4 years (p=0.048); steep K decreased from 50.55±4.10 D to 48.75±4.17 D at 4 years (p=0.0287); mean K decreased from 48.79±3.86 D to 46.86±4.11 D at 4 years (p=0.0356). The preoperative mean UCVA in the S-CXL group was 0.8 ±0.23 logMar and improved during the follow-up reaching 0.65 ±0.24 logMar at 4 years (p=0.072). The baseline mean UCVA in A-CXL group was 0.77±0.25 logMar and increased during the follow-up to 0.63 ±0.25 logMar at 4 years (p=0.0039). A similar improvement of BCVA was observed during the follow-up.


          Epi-off conventional and accelerated CXL are efficient procedures for progressive keratoconus in pediatric patients. Accelerated and conventional CXL were comparable at all time points and both represent viable options for the therapy of KC in these patients.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 20

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: not found
          • Article: not found

          Riboflavin/ultraviolet-a–induced collagen crosslinking for the treatment of keratoconus

            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Long-term results of riboflavin ultraviolet a corneal collagen cross-linking for keratoconus in Italy: the Siena eye cross study.

            To report the long-term results of 44 keratoconic eyes treated by combined riboflavin ultraviolet A collagen cross-linking in the first Italian open, nonrandomized phase II clinical trial, the Siena Eye Cross Study. Perspective, nonrandomized, open trial. After Siena University Institutional Review Board approval, from September 2004 through September 2008, 363 eyes with progressive keratoconus were treated with riboflavin ultraviolet A collagen cross-linking. Forty-four eyes with a minimum follow-up of 48 months (mean, 52.4 months; range, 48 to 60 months) were evaluated before and after surgery. Examinations comprised uncorrected visual acuity, best spectacle-corrected visual acuity, spherical spectacle-corrected visual acuity, endothelial cells count (I Konan, Non Con Robo; Konan Medical, Inc., Hyogo, Japan), optical (Visante OCT; Zeiss, Jena, Germany) and ultrasound (DGH; Pachette, Exton, Pennsylvania, USA) pachymetry, corneal topography and surface aberrometry (CSO EyeTop, Florence, Italy), tomography (Orbscan IIz; Bausch & Lomb Inc., Rochester, New York, USA), posterior segment optical coherence tomography (Stratus OCT; Zeiss, Jena, Germany), and in vivo confocal microscopy (HRT II; Heidelberg Engineering, Rostock, Germany). Keratoconus stability was detected in 44 eyes after 48 months of minimum follow-up; fellow eyes showed a mean progression of 1.5 diopters in more than 65% after 24 months, then were treated. The mean K value was reduced by a mean of 2 diopters, and coma aberration reduction with corneal symmetry improvement was observed in more than 85%. The mean best spectacle-corrected visual acuity improved by 1.9 Snellen lines, and the uncorrected visual acuity improved by 2.7 Snellen lines. The results of the Siena Eye Cross Study showed a long-term stability of keratoconus after cross-linking without relevant side effects. The uncorrected visual acuity and best spectacle-corrected visual acuity improvements were supported by clinical, topographic, and wavefront modifications induced by the treatment. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found


              Keratoconus is a bilateral noninflammatory corneal ectasia with an incidence of approximately 1 per 2,000 in the general population. It has well-described clinical signs, but early forms of the disease may go undetected unless the anterior corneal topography is studied. Early disease is now best detected with videokeratography. Classic histopathologic features include stromal thinning, iron deposition in the epithelial basement membrane, and breaks in Bowman's layer. Keratoconus is most commonly an isolated disorder, although several reports describe an association with Down syndrome, Leber's congenital amaurosis, and mitral valve prolapse. The differential diagnosis of keratoconus includes keratoglobus, pellucid marginal degeneration and Terrien's marginal degeneration. Contact lenses are the most common treatment modality. When contact lenses fail, corneal transplant is the best and most successful surgical option. Despite intensive clinical and laboratory investigation, the etiology of keratoconus remains unclear. Clinical studies provide strong indications of a major role for genes in its etiology. Videokeratography is playing an increasing role in defining the genetics of keratoconus, since early forms of the disease can be more accurately detected and potentially quantified in a reproducible manner. Laboratory studies suggest a role for degradative enzymes and proteinase inhibitors and a possible role for the interleukin-1 system in its pathogenesis, but these roles need to be more clearly defined. Genes suggested by these studies, as well as collagen genes and their regulatory products, could potentially be used as candidate genes to study patients with familial keratoconus. Such studies may provide the clues needed to enable us to better understand the underlying mechanisms that cause the corneal thinning in this disorder.

                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                30 December 2019
                : 15
                : 1483-1490
                [1 ]Department of Ophthalmology, “Iuliu Hațieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy , Cluj-Napoca, Romania
                [2 ]Oculens Clinic , Cluj-Napoca, Romania
                [3 ]County Eye Hospital , Cluj-Napoca, Romania
                [4 ]Department of Physiopathology, “Iuliu Hațieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy , Cluj-Napoca, Romania
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Cristina Ariadna Nicula Department of Ophthalmology, “Iuliu Hatieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy , Cluj-Napoca, RomaniaTel +40 722849575 Email niculacristina65@yahoo.com
                © 2019 Nicula et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 6, References: 23, Pages: 8
                Original Research


                pediatric patients, keratoconus, accelerated crosslinking, conventional crosslinking


                Comment on this article