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Asymmetric cortical high signal on diffusion weighted-MRI in a case of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease Translated title: Hipersinal cortical assimétrico na ressonância magnética na imagem em difusão em caso de doença de Creutzfeldt-Jakob

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      Abstract

      High signal in the cerebral cortex and/or basal ganglia on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) has been described as a good diagnostic marker for sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD). We report a case of sCJD with atypical clinical evolution and unusual DW-MRI findings. A 53-year-old man was seen with a 2-year history of a rapidly progressive dementia and cerebellar ataxia. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis, including the test for 14-3-3 protein, was normal. EEG did not show periodic activity. However, DW-MRI showed gyriform hyperintensity involving practically the entire cortical ribbon of the left hemisphere, whilst being limited to the posterior cingulate gyrus in the right hemisphere. DNA analysis showed no mutations or insertions in the prion protein gene, and homozigozity for methionine in codon 129. A subsequent brain biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of CJD. Thus, high signal on DW-MRI may be limited to the cerebral cortex and may present a very asymmetric distribution in sCJD.

      Translated abstract

      Hipersinal no cortex cerebral e/ou nos gânglios da base observado com a técnica de difusão da ressonância magnética (RM-DIF) tem sido descrito como bom marcador diagnóstico da doença de Creutzfeldt-Jakob esporádica (DCJe). Relatamos caso de DCJe com evolução clínica atípica e achados incomuns na RM-DIF. Homem de 53 anos foi examinado com história de dois anos de demência rapidamente progressiva e ataxia cerebelar. Exame do líquido cefalorraqueano, incluindo pesquisa da proteína 14-3-3, foi normal; EEG não revelou atividade periódica; RM-DIF mostrou hiperintensidade nos giros que afetava quase inteiramente o manto cortical do hemisfério cerebral esquerdo e que no hemisfério direito se limitava à parte posterior do giro cíngulo. Análise do DNA revelou ausência de mutação ou de inserção no gene da proteína priônica e a presença de homozigose para metionina no códon 129. Biópsia cerebral confirmou o diagnóstico de DCJ. Hipersinal na RM-DIF pode ser limitado ao córtex cerebral e pode distribuir-se de modo muito assimétrico na DCJe.

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      Diffusion-weighted MRI abnormalities as an early diagnostic marker for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

      To evaluate the usefulness of diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) for the early diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Thirty-six consecutive patients (age 56 to 82 years) were enrolled, and 26 were examined by DWI. Nine were definite based on the World Health Organization criteria, and 27 were probable. The percentages of DWI abnormalities, periodic sharp wave complexes (PSWCs) on the EEG, detection of CSF 14-3-3 protein, and increase of CSF neuron-specific enolase (>25 ng/mL) on the first examination were compared. For DWI, 32 patients (age 31 to 84 years) who showed progressive dementia or impaired consciousness served as disease controls. The percentage of DWI abnormalities was 92.3%, of PSWCs 50.0%, of 14-3-3 protein detection 84.0%, and of NSE increase 73.3%. Two of the 32 control subjects were falsely positive on DWI. The sensitivity of DWI was 92.3% (95% CI 74.8 to 99.5%) and specificity 93.8% (95% CI 79.2 to 99.2%). In 17 patients who did not show PSWCs on the first EEG, abnormal DWI findings were still clearly detected. Four patients who were negative for 14-3-3 protein also showed DWI abnormalities. DWI abnormalities were detected as early as at 3 weeks of symptom duration in four patients in whom PSWCs were not yet evident. DWI can detect characteristic lesions in the majority of patients with CJD regardless of the presence of PSWCs. DWI was the most sensitive test for the early clinical diagnosis of CJD; consideration should be given to its inclusion in the clinical diagnostic criteria of CJD.
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        Emerging patterns of diffusion-weighted MR imaging in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: case report and review of the literature.

        We report the use of diffusion-weighted MR imaging in the early diagnosis and monitoring of the progression of a histopathologically proved case of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Ribbon-like areas of hyperintensity in the cerebral cortex on diffusion-weighted images corresponded to the localization of periodic sharp-wave complexes on the electroencephalogram.
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          Clinical range and MRI in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with heterozygosity at codon 129 and prion protein type 2.

          A 68 year old woman with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is described, who neither showed characteristic EEG abnormalities nor a positive test of the neuronal protein 14-3-3 or neuron specific enolase (NSE) in CSF, despite a clinical presentation with ataxia of cerebellar type, rapidly progressive dementia, myoclonus, and marked hyperintense signal abnormalities in the deep cortical layers and the basal ganglia on T2 and diffusion weighted MRI. Moreover she showed atypical clinical features with a syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (ADH) secretion (SIADH) and a peripheral sensorimotor polyneuropathy. Whether these disturbances are independent of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease or a feature of it is discussed. It has recently been shown that in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease different clinical and pathological phenotypes correlate with the polymorphism at codon 129 of the prion protein gene (PRNP) and the type of the protease resistant fragment that accumulates in the brain. According to the new classification at least six sporadic variants of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease exist. The molecular genetic analysis showed heterozygosity of PRNP at codon 129 for methionine and valine and the presence of PrP(CJD) type 2 in the brain of this patient. As a new feature of changes on MRI, striking cortical changes of hyperintense signals are described in diffusion weighted as well as T2 weighted MRI that directly correlate with the histomorphological spongy degeneration of the brain in this region. In cases of rapidly progressive dementia, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease always needs to be considered even if unusual features are present and current diagnostic criteria are not in favour of this disease.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ] Universidade de São Paulo Brazil
            [2 ] Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research Brazil
            Contributors
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            Journal
            anp
            Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria
            Arq. Neuro-Psiquiatr.
            Academia Brasileira de Neurologia - ABNEURO (São Paulo )
            1678-4227
            June 2005
            : 63
            : 2b
            : 519-522
            S0004-282X2005000300028
            10.1590/S0004-282X2005000300028

            http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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            Product Information: SciELO Brazil
            Categories
            NEUROSCIENCES
            PSYCHIATRY

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