The Australian species of Alysiini are revised. Fourteen genera are treated, with eight of these recorded from Australia for the first time. Two of the genera, one from eastern Australia and one from New Guinea, are described as new. Two new subgenera are described, Idiasta Foerster (Apiasta, subgen. nov.) and Leptolarthra Fischer (Cratocarpa, subgen. nov.). Forty-nine species are described, 43 of them new: one in Aphaereta Foerster; eight in Aspilota Foerster; six in Cratospila Foerster; 13 in Dinotrema Foerster; one in Heleomyzophaga, gen. nov.; one in Heratemis Walker; one in Hovhoa, gen. nov.; four in Idiasta; three in Leptolarthra; three in Orthostigma Ratzeburg; one in Phaenocarpa Foerster; and one in Tanycarpa Foerster. Keys are presented to all genera of Alysiinae known from Australia as well as the Australian species of Asobara, Aspilota, Cratospila, Dinotrema and Orthostigma. Additionally, the world genera are reviewed and their relationships discussed to provide a context for an assessment of the Australian fauna. The status of 80 available genus-group names is discussed. The following nomenclatural changes are proposed: Neorthostigma Belokobylskij and Patriaspilota Fischer are treated as subgenera of Orthostigma; Acrobela Foerster as a synonym of Tanycarpa; Idiolexis Foerster as a synonym of Phaenocarpa; Eudinostigma Tobias as a synonym of Dinotrema; and Leptotrema van Achterberg as a subgenus of Dinotrema. The following new combinations are in addition to those associated with the above nomenclatural changes: Aspilota magnareata (Fischer); Dinotrema hardyi (Fischer); Dinotrema parvimaxillatum (Fischer); Dinotrema rotatum (Fischer); Dinotrema schoenmanni (Fischer); Leptolarthra cubiceps (Bischoff); and Orthostigma orthostigmoides (Fischer). Host records are included for two of the newly described species. Heleomyzophaga collessi, gen. nov. et sp. nov. was reared from a heleomyzid fly and Dinotrema monstrosum, sp. nov. was reared from a platypezid fly. A third species, Idiasta minor, sp. nov., was collected from pitfall traps baited with carrion.