Alice Gaudin 1 , Müge Yemisci 2 , Hakan Eroglu 3 , Sinda Lepêtre-Mouelhi 1 , Omer Faruk Turkoglu 4 , Buket Dönmez-Demir 2 , Seçil Caban 3 , Mustafa Fevzi Sargon 5 , Sébastien Garcia-Argote 6 , Grégory Pieters 6 , Olivier Loreau 6 , Bernard Rousseau 6 , Oya Tagit 7 , Niko Hildebrandt 7 , Yannick Le Dantec 8 , Julie Mougin 1 , Sabrina Valetti 1 , Hélène Chacun 1 , Valérie Nicolas 9 , Didier Desmaële 1 , Karine Andrieux * , 1 , Yilmaz Capan 3 , Turgay Dalkara 2 , Patrick Couvreur * , 1
24 November 2014
There is an urgent need to develop new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of severe neurological trauma, such as stroke and spinal cord injuries. However, many drugs with potential neuropharmacological activity, like adenosine, are inefficient upon systemic administration because of their fast metabolisation and rapid clearance from the bloodstream. Here, we show that the conjugation of adenosine to the lipid squalene and the subsequent formation of nanoassemblies allow a prolonged circulation of this nucleoside, to provide neuroprotection in mouse stroke and rat spinal cord injury models. The animals receiving systemic administration of squalenoyl adenosine nanoassemblies showed a significant improvement of their neurologic deficit score in the case of cerebral ischaemia, and an early motor recovery of the hindlimbs in the case of spinal cord injury. Moreover, in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that the nanoassemblies were able to extend adenosine circulation and its interaction with the neurovascular unit. This paper shows, for the first time, that a hydrophilic and rapidly metabolised molecule like adenosine may become pharmacologically efficient owing to a single conjugation with the lipid squalene.