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      Diversity, distribution patterns, and fauno-genesis of the millipedes (Diplopoda) of mainland China

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      continental China, Diplopod fauna, zoogeography

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          Abstract

          Based on all available information, 339 species from 71 genera, 26 families, and eleven orders of Diplopoda have hitherto been recorded from mainland China, the fauna thus being very rich, albeit far from completely known, comprising various zoogeographic elements and populating very different environments. Diplopods mainly occur in various woodlands, in caves, and high in the mountains. Most species (> 90 %, usually highly localised, including 160 cavernicoles), 18 genera, and one family are strictly endemic to continental China. Mapping not only the horizontal, but also the vertical distributions of Diplopoda in China shows the bulk of the fauna to be expectedly restricted to forested lowland and mountain biomes or their remnants. Yet some Chordeumatida , Callipodida , Polydesmida , Julida , and even Spirobolida seem to occur only in the subalpine to alpine environments and thus may provisionally be considered as truly high-montane. The long-acknowledged notions of China being a great biogeographic zone transitional between the Palaearctic and Oriental regions generally find good support in millipede distributions, in particular at the higher taxonomic levels (generic, familial, and ordinal). While the Palaearctic/Holarctic components expectedly dominate the fauna of the northern parts of the country, the Oriental ones prevail in its south and along the Pacific coast. Both realms are increasingly mixed and intermingled towards China’s centre. However, in addition to the above traditional views, based on distribution patterns alone, southern China seems to harbour a rather small, but highly peculiar faunal nucleus or origin centre of its own, whence Himalaya, Myanmar, Thailand, Indochina and/or Taiwan could have become populated by younger lineages. The millipede fauna of continental China is thus a tangled mixture of zoogeographic elements of various origins and ages, both relict and more advanced. The few anthropochores must have been the latest faunal “layer” to populate China.

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          Most cited references 146

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          Modelling the vegetation of China using the process-based equilibrium terrestrial biosphere model BIOME3

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            Cave Diplopoda of southern China with reference to millipede diversity in Southeast Asia

            Abstract The diversity of Diplopoda in caves of southern China is remarkably high, often 5–6 species per cave, consisting mostly of local endemics and presumed troglobionts. These are evidently biased to just a few lineages, mainly members of the orders Chordeumatida and Callipodida , the families Cambalopsidae ( Spirostreptida ) and Haplodesmidae ( Polydesmida ) or the genera Pacidesmus , Epanerchodus and Glenniea (all Polydesmida , Polydesmidae ), Trichopeltis ( Polydesmida , Cryptodesmidae ), Dexmoxytes ( Polydesmida , Paradoxosomatidae ) and Hyleoglomeris ( Glomerida , Glomeridae ). All these taxa, especially the Paradoxosomatidae and Cambalopsidae (usually amounting to about 60% and 10% of the total species diversity in the Oriental fauna, respectively), are moderately to highly speciose across Southeast Asia, being largely epigean. However, the epigean Diplopoda of southern China are yet badly understudied, since much of the collecting and taxonomic exploration efforts still focus on cavernicoles. The Oriental Region is the only biogeographic realm globally that harbours all 16 orders of Diplopoda , of which 14 have already been encountered in China and/or the immediately adjacent parts of Indochina. Thus, China may actually prove to support no less than 1,000 millipede species of various origins, mainly Oriental and Palaearctic.
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              Review of the millipede family Haplodesmidae Cook, 1895, with descriptions of some new or poorly-known species (Diplopoda, Polydesmida)

              The polydesmoid family Haplodesmidae Cook, 1895 is reviewed and shown to be a senior subjective synonym of the family Doratodesmidae Cook, 1896, syn. n. The Haplodesmidae therefore encompasses six genera and 30 recognizable species, all keyed here, including the following six new species: Eutrichodesmus basalis sp. n. and E. armatocaudatus sp. n. from Vietnam; E. communicans sp. n. from Vanuatu, Melanesia; and E. latus sp. n., E. similis sp. n. and E. incisus sp. n. from China. The following new synonymies are proposed: Prosopodesmus Silvestri, 1910 = Rhipidopeltis Miyosi, 1958; Doratodesmus Cook in Cook & Collins, 1895 = Pauroplus Chamberlin, 1945, = Eucondylodesmus Miyosi, 1956, = Scolopopyge Hoffman, 1978, = Selminarchus Hoffman, 1978, = Crenatidorsus Zhang in Zhang & Wang, 1993; Eutrichodesmus Silvestri, 1910 = Dimorphodesmus Murakami, 1966, = Ascetophacus Hoffman, 1977, = Cerastelachys Hoffman, 1977, = Dyomerothrix Hoffman, 1982, = Parapauroplus Zhang in Zhang & Wang, 1993, = Pocillidorsus Zhang in Zhang & Wang, 1993 (all syn. n.). The following new combinations are proposed: Prosopodesmus sinuatus (Miyosi, 1958), Doratodesmus elegans (Miyosi, 1956), Doratodesmus grandifoliatus (Zhang in Zhang & Wang, 1993), Doratodesmus analdes (Chamberlin, 1945), Doratodesmus pholeter (Hoffman, 1978), Doratodesmus hispidus (Hoffman, 1978), Eutrichodesmus macclurei (Hoffman, 1977), Eutrichodesmus reclinatus (Hoffman, 1977), Eutrichodesmus cavernicola (Sinclair, 1901), Eutrichodesmus peculiaris (Murakami, 1966), Eutrichodesmus gremialis (Hoffman, 1982), Eutrichodesmus monodentus (Zhang in Zhang & Wang, 1993), Eutrichodesmus dorsiangulatus (Zhang in Zhang & Wang, 1993) (all n. comb.).
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Zookeys
                Zookeys
                2
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:45048D35-BB1D-5CE8-9668-537E44BD4C7E
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:91BD42D4-90F1-4B45-9350-EEF175B1727A
                ZooKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2989
                1313-2970
                2020
                28 April 2020
                : 930
                : 153-198
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Institute for Problems of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky pr. 33, Moscow 119071, Russia Institute for Problems of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences Moscow Russia
                [2 ] Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, South China Agricultural University, 483 Wushanlu, Guangzhou 510642, China South China Agricultural University Guangzhou China
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Sergei Golovatch ( sgolovatch@ 123456yandex.ru )

                Academic editor: Z. Korsós

                Article
                47513
                10.3897/zookeys.930.47513
                7200884
                Sergei I. Golovatch, Weixin Liu

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Research Article
                Diplopoda
                Biogeography
                Asia

                Animal science & Zoology

                zoogeography, diplopod fauna, continental china

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