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      Ser gestante en tiempos de pandemia: Una mirada de la salud mental antes y durante la pandemia Translated title: Pregnancy in times of Pandemic: A look at Mental Health before and during the pandemic

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          Abstract

          RESUMEN Introducción: El embarazo es una etapa de cambios fisiológicos, psicológicos, personales y sociales para la mujer. El papel del aspecto emocional y psicológico abarca todo el periodo debido a que conforme avanza el desarrollo fetal, la relación madre-bebé se fortalece volviendo vulnerable a la madre. Objetivos: Recopilar, describir y analizar la información relevante sobre la salud mental en mujeres embarazadas, tanto en las diferentes etapas de la gestación como antes y durante la pandemia de COVID-19. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda de literatura por medio de PubMed, Google Scholar y Scielo por medio de terminología recopilada del MeSH y DeCs. Resultados: El embarazo debido a los cambios hormonales ocasiona la presencia de ansiedad y sentimientos de depresión que se agravan conforme avanzan las etapas de desarrollo fetal. Estos trastornos psicológicos han incrementado en gran medida durante la pandemia de COVID-19 debido a varias razones como la relación en pareja, la incertidumbre, miedo, angustia y fobia creciente por el contagio. Consideraciones finales: Las gestantes son una población vulnerable, la cual siempre ha visto afectada su salud mental y en la actualidad ha sido mucho más afectada debido a la pandemia, por ello necesitan de mejor atención en el sector de salud como brindarles información confiable sobre medidas para aliviar la carga de factores estresantes, ya que no solo cargan con la angustia de su salud sino también con la del feto.

          Translated abstract

          ABSTRACT Introduction: Pregnancy is a stage of physiological, psychological, personal, and social changes for women. The role of the emotional and psychological aspect covers the entire period because as fetal development progresses, the mother-baby relationship is strengthened, making the mother vulnerable. Objectives: Collect, describe and analyze relevant information on mental health in pregnant women, both at different stages of pregnancy and before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A literature search was carried out through PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scielo using terminology compiled from MeSH and DeCs. Results: Pregnancy due to hormonal changes causes the presence of anxiety and feelings of depression that worsen as the stages of fetal development progress. These psychological disorders have greatly increased during the COVID-19 pandemic due to various reasons such as the relationship with a partner, uncertainty, fear, anguish, and growing phobia of contagion. Final considerations: Pregnant women are a vulnerable population whose mental health has always been affected and more than ever due to the pandemic, so they need better care in the health sector, such as providing reliable information on preventive measures to alleviate the burden of stressors, as they bear the burden of their health distress and that of the fetus.

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          The COVID‐19 epidemic

          The current outbreak of the novel coronavirus SARS‐CoV‐2 (coronavirus disease 2019; previously 2019‐nCoV), epi‐centred in Hubei Province of the People’s Republic of China, has spread to many other countries. On 30. January 2020, the WHO Emergency Committee declared a global health emergency based on growing case notification rates at Chinese and international locations. The case detection rate is changing daily and can be tracked in almost real time on the website provided by Johns Hopkins University 1 and other forums. As of midst of February 2020, China bears the large burden of morbidity and mortality, whereas the incidence in other Asian countries, in Europe and North America remains low so far. Coronaviruses are enveloped, positive single‐stranded large RNA viruses that infect humans, but also a wide range of animals. Coronaviruses were first described in 1966 by Tyrell and Bynoe, who cultivated the viruses from patients with common colds 2. Based on their morphology as spherical virions with a core shell and surface projections resembling a solar corona, they were termed coronaviruses (Latin: corona = crown). Four subfamilies, namely alpha‐, beta‐, gamma‐ and delta‐coronaviruses exist. While alpha‐ and beta‐coronaviruses apparently originate from mammals, in particular from bats, gamma‐ and delta‐viruses originate from pigs and birds. The genome size varies between 26 kb and 32 kb. Among the seven subtypes of coronaviruses that can infect humans, the beta‐coronaviruses may cause severe disease and fatalities, whereas alpha‐coronaviruses cause asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic infections. SARS‐CoV‐2 belongs to the B lineage of the beta‐coronaviruses and is closely related to the SARS‐CoV virus 3, 4. The major four structural genes encode the nucleocapsid protein (N), the spike protein (S), a small membrane protein (SM) and the membrane glycoprotein (M) with an additional membrane glycoprotein (HE) occurring in the HCoV‐OC43 and HKU1 beta‐coronaviruses 5. SARS‐CoV‐2 is 96% identical at the whole‐genome level to a bat coronavirus 4. SARS‐CoV‐2 apparently succeeded in making its transition from animals to humans on the Huanan seafood market in Wuhan, China. However, endeavours to identify potential intermediate hosts seem to have been neglected in Wuhan and the exact route of transmission urgently needs to be clarified. The initial clinical sign of the SARS‐CoV‐2‐related disease COVID‐19 which allowed case detection was pneumonia. More recent reports also describe gastrointestinal symptoms and asymptomatic infections, especially among young children 6. Observations so far suggest a mean incubation period of five days 7 and a median incubation period of 3 days (range: 0–24 days) 8. The proportion of individuals infected by SARS‐CoV‐2 who remain asymptomatic throughout the course of infection has not yet been definitely assessed. In symptomatic patients, the clinical manifestations of the disease usually start after less than a week, consisting of fever, cough, nasal congestion, fatigue and other signs of upper respiratory tract infections. The infection can progress to severe disease with dyspnoea and severe chest symptoms corresponding to pneumonia in approximately 75% of patients, as seen by computed tomography on admission 8. Pneumonia mostly occurs in the second or third week of a symptomatic infection. Prominent signs of viral pneumonia include decreased oxygen saturation, blood gas deviations, changes visible through chest X‐rays and other imaging techniques, with ground glass abnormalities, patchy consolidation, alveolar exudates and interlobular involvement, eventually indicating deterioration. Lymphopenia appears to be common, and inflammatory markers (C‐reactive protein and proinflammatory cytokines) are elevated. Recent investigations of 425 confirmed cases demonstrate that the current epidemic may double in the number of affected individuals every seven days and that each patient spreads infection to 2.2 other individuals on average (R0) 6. Estimates from the SARS‐CoV outbreak in 2003 reported an R0 of 3 9. A recent data‐driven analysis from the early phase of the outbreak estimates a mean R0 range from 2.2 to 3.58 10. Dense communities are at particular risk and the most vulnerable region certainly is Africa, due to dense traffic between China and Africa. Very few African countries have sufficient and appropriate diagnostic capacities and obvious challenges exist to handle such outbreaks. Indeed, the virus might soon affect Africa. WHO has identified 13 top‐priority countries (Algeria, Angola, Cote d’Ivoire, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Mauritius, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia) which either maintain direct links to China or a high volume of travel to China. Recent studies indicate that patients ≥60 years of age are at higher risk than children who might be less likely to become infected or, if so, may show milder symptoms or even asymptomatic infection 7. As of 13. February 2020, the case fatality rate of COVID‐19 infections has been approximately 2.2% (1370/60363; 13. February 2020, 06:53 PM CET); it was 9.6% (774/8096) in the SARS‐CoV epidemic 11 and 34.4% (858/2494) in the MERS‐CoV outbreak since 2012 12. Like other viruses, SARS‐CoV‐2 infects lung alveolar epithelial cells using receptor‐mediated endocytosis via the angiotensin‐converting enzyme II (ACE2) as an entry receptor 4. Artificial intelligence predicts that drugs associated with AP2‐associated protein kinase 1 (AAK1) disrupting these proteins may inhibit viral entry into the target cells 13. Baricitinib, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, is an AAK1 and Janus kinase inhibitor and suggested for controlling viral replication 13. Moreover, one in vitro and a clinical study indicate that remdesivir, an adenosine analogue that acts as a viral protein inhibitor, has improved the condition in one patient 14, 15. Chloroquine, by increasing the endosomal pH required for virus‐cell fusion, has the potential of blocking viral infection 15 and was shown to affect activation of p38 mitogen‐activated protein kinase (MAPK), which is involved in replication of HCoV‐229E 16. A combination of the antiretroviral drugs lopinavir and ritonavir significantly improved the clinical condition of SARS‐CoV patients 17 and might be an option in COVID‐19 infections. Further possibilities include leronlimab, a humanised monoclonal antibody (CCR5 antagonist), and galidesivir, a nucleoside RNA polymerase inhibitor, both of which have shown survival benefits in several deadly virus infections and are being considered as potential treatment candidates 18. Repurposing these available drugs for immediate use in treatment in SARS‐CoV‐2 infections could improve the currently available clinical management. Clinical trials presently registered at ClinicalTrials.gov focus on the efficacy of remdesivir, immunoglobulins, arbidol hydrochloride combined with interferon atomisation, ASC09F+Oseltamivir, ritonavir plus oseltamivir, lopinavir plus ritonavir, mesenchymal stem cell treatment, darunavir plus cobicistat, hydroxychloroquine, methylprednisolone and washed microbiota transplantation 19. Given the fragile health systems in most sub‐Saharan African countries, new and re‐emerging disease outbreaks such as the current COVID‐19 epidemic can potentially paralyse health systems at the expense of primary healthcare requirements. The impact of the Ebola epidemic on the economy and healthcare structures is still felt five years later in those countries which were affected. Effective outbreak responses and preparedness during emergencies of such magnitude are challenging across African and other lower‐middle‐income countries. Such situations can partly only be mitigated by supporting existing regional and sub‐Saharan African health structures.
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            Elevated depression and anxiety symptoms among pregnant individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic

            Background Anxiety and depression symptoms in pregnancy typically affect between 10-25% of pregnant individuals. Elevated symptoms of depression and anxiety are associated with increased risk of preterm birth, postpartum depression, and behavioural difficulties in children. The current COVID-19 pandemic is a unique stressor with potentially wide-ranging consequences for pregnancy and beyond. Methods We assessed symptoms of anxiety and depression among pregnant individuals during the current COVID-19 pandemic and determined factors that were associated with psychological distress. 1987 pregnant participants in Canada were surveyed in April 2020. The assessment included questions about COVID-19-related stress and standardized measures of depression, anxiety, pregnancy-related anxiety, and social support. Results We found substantially elevated anxiety and depression symptoms compared to similar pre-pandemic pregnancy cohorts, with 37% reporting clinically relevant symptoms of depression and 57% reporting clinically relevant symptoms of anxiety. Higher symptoms of depression and anxiety were associated with more concern about threats of COVID-19 to the life of the mother and baby, as well as concerns about not getting the necessary prenatal care, relationship strain, and social isolation due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Higher levels of perceived social support and support effectiveness, as well as more physical activity, were associated with lower psychological symptoms. Conclusion This study shows concerningly elevated symptoms of anxiety and depression among pregnant individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic, that may have long-term impacts on their children. Potential protective factors include increased social support and exercise, as these were associated with lower symptoms and thus may help mitigate long-term negative outcomes.
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              Moms Are Not OK: COVID-19 and Maternal Mental Health

              Introduction: Depression and anxiety affect one in seven women during the perinatal period, and are associated with increased risk of preterm delivery, reduced mother-infant bonding, and delays in cognitive/emotional development of the infant. With this survey we aimed to rapidly assess the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent physical distancing/isolation measures on the mental health and physical activity of pregnant and postpartum women. Methods: Between April 14 and May 8, 2020, we recruited women who were pregnant or within the first year after delivery to participate in an online survey. This included questionnaires on self-reported levels of depression/depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Survey; EPDS), anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory; STAI-State), and physical activity. Current and pre-pandemic values were assessed for each. Results: Of 900 eligible women, 520 (58%) were pregnant and 380 (42%) were in the first year after delivery. Sixty-four percent of women reported reduced physical activity with the onset of isolation measures, while 15% increased, and 21% had no change to their physical activity. An EPDS score > 13 (indicative of depression) was self-identified in 15% of respondents pre-pandemic and in 40.7% currently (mean ± SD; 7.5 ± 4.9 vs. 11.2 ± 6.3, respectively; p < 0.01, moderate effect). Moderate to high anxiety (STAI-state score > 40) was identified in 29% of women before the pandemic (mean STAI = 34.5 ± 11.4) vs. 72% of women currently (mean STAI = 48.1 ± 13.6; p < 0.01, large effect). However, women engaging in at least 150 min of moderate intensity physical activity (meeting current guidelines) during the pandemic had significantly lower scores for both anxiety and depression than those who did not ( p < 0.01, large and small effect, respectively). Discussion: This rapid response survey identifies a substantial increase in the likelihood of maternal depression and anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic. This highlights the strong need for heightened assessment and treatment of maternal mental health. However, these data also suggest that physical activity, which has previously been shown to reduce depression and depressive symptoms in pregnancy, may be associated with better mental health during the pandemic.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                rfmh
                Revista de la Facultad de Medicina Humana
                Rev. Fac. Med. Hum.
                Universidad Ricardo Palma (URP) (Lima, , Peru )
                1814-5469
                2308-0531
                April 2022
                : 22
                : 2
                : 402-408
                Affiliations
                [1] Lima Lima orgnameUniversidad Ricardo Palma Peru
                [2] Chimbote orgnameUniversidad César Vallejo Peru
                [3] Chimbote orgnameAsociación Peruana de Ciencia, Tecnología y Medio Ambiente Saludable Perú
                Article
                S2308-05312022000200402 S2308-0531(22)02200200402
                10.25176/rfmh.v22i2.4802
                73033651-b553-4288-9601-d788fd0346f2

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

                History
                : 05 February 2022
                : 06 March 2022
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 42, Pages: 7
                Product

                SciELO Peru

                Categories
                Artículo de revisión

                emociones,COVID-19. (Fuente: DeCS BIREME).,Gestation,mental health,emotions,COVID-19. (Source : MeSH - NLM).,Gestación,salud mental

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