1
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
2 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      A Case Report of Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Developing After COVID-19 Infection

      case-report
      1 , 1 , 2 ,
      ,
      Cureus
      Cureus
      ventriculoperitoneal shunts, shunt, external ventricular drain (evd), covid 19, normal-pressure hydrocephalus

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 virus) has been reported to cause significant injury to the central nervous system (CNS). Herein, we describe the case of a 48-year-old male with a past medical history of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), hypertension, and hyperlipidemia who developed typical symptomatology of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) with cognitive impairment, gait dysfunction, and urinary incontinence after a mild coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infection. The diagnosis was confirmed by imaging and lumbar puncture (LP). The patient was treated with a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt placed by neurosurgery and had a complete recovery.

          Despite increasing reports of neurological manifestations of COVID-19 infection, the mechanism of such pathology is still not well understood. Hypotheses include viral invasion of the CNS either through the nasopharynx and olfactory epithelium or directly through the blood brain barrier.

          Related collections

          Most cited references22

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Neurologic Manifestations of Hospitalized Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Wuhan, China

          The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China, is serious and has the potential to become an epidemic worldwide. Several studies have described typical clinical manifestations including fever, cough, diarrhea, and fatigue. However, to our knowledge, it has not been reported that patients with COVID-19 had any neurologic manifestations.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Pathogenic human coronavirus infections: causes and consequences of cytokine storm and immunopathology

            Human coronaviruses (hCoVs) can be divided into low pathogenic and highly pathogenic coronaviruses. The low pathogenic CoVs infect the upper respiratory tract and cause mild, cold-like respiratory illness. In contrast, highly pathogenic hCoVs such as severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV) predominantly infect lower airways and cause fatal pneumonia. Severe pneumonia caused by pathogenic hCoVs is often associated with rapid virus replication, massive inflammatory cell infiltration and elevated pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine responses resulting in acute lung injury (ALI), and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Recent studies in experimentally infected animal strongly suggest a crucial role for virus-induced immunopathological events in causing fatal pneumonia after hCoV infections. Here we review the current understanding of how a dysregulated immune response may cause lung immunopathology leading to deleterious clinical manifestations after pathogenic hCoV infections.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: found

              Neuropathogenesis and Neurologic Manifestations of the Coronaviruses in the Age of Coronavirus Disease 2019: A Review

              Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in December 2019, causing human coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which has now spread into a worldwide pandemic. The pulmonary manifestations of COVID-19 have been well described in the literature. Two similar human coronaviruses that cause Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-1) are known to cause disease in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Emerging evidence suggests COVID-19 has neurologic consequences as well. This review serves to summarize available information regarding coronaviruses in the nervous system, identify the potential tissue targets and routes of entry of SARS-CoV-2 into the central nervous system, and describe the range of clinical neurological complications that have been reported thus far in COVID-19 and their potential pathogenesis. Viral neuroinvasion may be achieved by several routes, including transsynaptic transfer across infected neurons, entry via the olfactory nerve, infection of vascular endothelium, or leukocyte migration across the blood-brain barrier. The most common neurologic complaints in COVID-19 are anosmia, ageusia, and headache, but other diseases, such as stroke, impairment of consciousness, seizure, and encephalopathy, have also been reported. Recognition and understanding of the range of neurological disorders associated with COVID-19 may lead to improved clinical outcomes and better treatment algorithms. Further neuropathological studies will be crucial to understanding the pathogenesis of the disease in the central nervous system, and longitudinal neurologic and cognitive assessment of individuals after recovery from COVID-19 will be crucial to understand the natural history of COVID-19 in the central nervous system and monitor for any long-term neurologic sequelae.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cureus
                Cureus
                2168-8184
                Cureus
                Cureus (Palo Alto (CA) )
                2168-8184
                13 January 2023
                January 2023
                : 15
                : 1
                : e33753
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Internal Medicine, Northwell Health at Mather Hospital, Port Jefferson, USA
                [2 ] Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Northwell Health at Mather Hospital, Port Jefferson, USA
                Author notes
                Article
                10.7759/cureus.33753
                9922937
                7402085d-96c6-4bd4-8a79-71dc12dbb96e
                Copyright © 2023, Badar et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                History
                : 13 January 2023
                Categories
                Neurology

                ventriculoperitoneal shunts,shunt,external ventricular drain (evd),covid 19,normal-pressure hydrocephalus

                Comments

                Comment on this article