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      Impacts of the COVID‐19 pandemic on vegetable production systems and livelihoods: Smallholder farmer experiences in Burkina Faso


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          At the onset of COVID‐19, researchers quickly recognized the need for research on the consequences of the pandemic for agricultural and food systems, both in terms of immediate impacts on access to inputs and labor, disruptions in transportation and markets, and the longer‐term implications on crop productivity, income, and livelihoods. Vegetable production and supply chains are particularly vulnerable due to the perishable nature of the products and labor‐intensive production practices. The purpose of this study was to understand the impacts of COVID‐19 on vegetable production in Burkina Faso in terms of both the biophysical aspects such as yields and access to inputs and socioeconomic aspects such as access to labor, markets, and social services. A survey was developed to better understand smallholder farmer experiences regarding the impacts of COVID‐19 on their vegetable production systems and social well‐being. The survey was administered (between August and October 2020) with smallholder farmers ( n = 605) in 13 administrative regions covering all agroecological zones of Burkina Faso. The survey results clearly show impacts of COVID‐19 on vegetable systems, including a reduction in access to inputs, a reduction in yields, a loss of income, reduced access to local and urban markets, reduced access to transportation, and an increase in post‐harvest loss. Market access, distribution, and disruptions were a major shock to the system. Results also showed an increase in women's labor in the household, and for youth, an increase in unemployment, job loss, and concerns of poverty. Finally, food security and social supports were highlighted as major issues for resilience and livelihoods. The results from this survey should be helpful to policymakers and researchers to develop policies and strategies to minimize the negative impacts of this ongoing pandemic on the agri‐food systems and support smallholder farmers to overcome stress caused by COVID‐19.


          Impacts of COVID‐19 experienced by smallholder vegetable farmers in Burkina Faso were collected through surveys. They expressed reduction in access to inputs, reduced yields, loss of income, reduced access to local and urban markets, reduced access to transportation, and increased post‐harvest loss. These impacted lives, livelihoods, and social well‐being of families, especially women and youth.

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          Most cited references28

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          A new 1 km global IIASA-IFPRI cropland percentage map for the baseline year 2005 has been developed which integrates a number of individual cropland maps at global to regional to national scales. The individual map products include existing global land cover maps such as GlobCover 2005 and MODIS v.5, regional maps such as AFRICOVER and national maps from mapping agencies and other organizations. The different products are ranked at the national level using crowdsourced data from Geo-Wiki to create a map that reflects the likelihood of cropland. Calibration with national and subnational crop statistics was then undertaken to distribute the cropland within each country and subnational unit. The new IIASA-IFPRI cropland product has been validated using very high-resolution satellite imagery via Geo-Wiki and has an overall accuracy of 82.4%. It has also been compared with the EarthStat cropland product and shows a lower root mean square error on an independent data set collected from Geo-Wiki. The first ever global field size map was produced at the same resolution as the IIASA-IFPRI cropland map based on interpolation of field size data collected via a Geo-Wiki crowdsourcing campaign. A validation exercise of the global field size map revealed satisfactory agreement with control data, particularly given the relatively modest size of the field size data set used to create the map. Both are critical inputs to global agricultural monitoring in the frame of GEOGLAM and will serve the global land modelling and integrated assessment community, in particular for improving land use models that require baseline cropland information. These products are freely available for downloading from the http://cropland.geo-wiki.org website.
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                Author and article information

                vara@ksu.edu , jmiddend@ksu.edu
                Food Energy Secur
                Food Energy Secur
                Food and Energy Security
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                31 October 2021
                31 October 2021
                : e337
                [ 1 ] Feed the Future Innovation Lab for Collaborative Research on Sustainable Intensification Kansas State University Manhattan Kansas USA
                [ 2 ] Institut de l’Environnement et de Recherches Agricoles (INERA) Ouagadougou Burkina Faso
                [ 3 ] Department of Sociology, Anthropology, and Social Work Kansas State University Manhattan Kansas USA
                [ 4 ] Department of Agronomy Kansas State University Manhattan Kansas USA
                Author notes
                [*] [* ] Correspondence

                B. Jan Middendorf and P.V. Vara Prasad, Feed the Future Innovation Lab for Collaborative Research on Sustainable Intensification, 108 Waters Hall, 1603 Old Claflin Place, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA.

                Emails: vara@ 123456ksu.edu ; jmiddend@ 123456ksu.edu

                Author information
                © 2021 The Authors. Food and Energy Security published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

                This is an open access article under the terms of the http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 20 May 2021
                : 11 October 2021
                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 11, Pages: 15, Words: 16209
                Funded by: United States Agency for International Development , doi 10.13039/100000200;
                Original Article
                Original Articles
                Custom metadata
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_JATSPMC version:6.0.9 mode:remove_FC converted:06.12.2021

                burkina faso,covid‐19,resilience,smallholder farmers,vegetable production systems


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