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      A scoping review and proposed workflow for multi-omic rare disease research

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          Abstract

          Background

          Patients with rare diseases face unique challenges in obtaining a diagnosis, appropriate medical care and access to support services. Whole genome and exome sequencing have increased identification of causal variants compared to single gene testing alone, with diagnostic rates of approximately 50% for inherited diseases, however integrated multi-omic analysis may further increase diagnostic yield. Additionally, multi-omic analysis can aid the explanation of genotypic and phenotypic heterogeneity, which may not be evident from single omic analyses.

          Main body

          This scoping review took a systematic approach to comprehensively search the electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar, and the grey literature databases OpenGrey / GreyLit for journal articles pertaining to multi-omics and rare disease, written in English and published prior to the 30th December 2018. Additionally, The Cancer Genome Atlas publications were searched for relevant studies and forward citation searching / screening of reference lists was performed to identify further eligible articles. Following title, abstract and full text screening, 66 articles were found to be eligible for inclusion in this review. Of these 42 (64%) were studies of multi-omics and rare cancer, two (3%) were studies of multi-omics and a pre-cancerous condition, and 22 (33.3%) were studies of non-cancerous rare diseases. The average age of participants (where known) across studies was 39.4 years. There has been a significant increase in the number of multi-omic studies in recent years, with 66.7% of included studies conducted since 2016 and 33% since 2018. Fourteen combinations of multi-omic analyses for rare disease research were returned spanning genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, phenomics and metabolomics.

          Conclusions

          This scoping review emphasises the value of multi-omic analysis for rare disease research in several ways compared to single omic analysis, ranging from the provision of a diagnosis, identification of prognostic biomarkers, distinct molecular subtypes (particularly for rare cancers), and identification of novel therapeutic targets. Moving forward there is a critical need for collaboration of multi-omic rare disease studies to increase the potential to generate robust outcomes and development of standardised biorepository collection and reporting structures for multi-omic studies.

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          Most cited references 89

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          Multiplatform analysis of 12 cancer types reveals molecular classification within and across tissues of origin.

          Recent genomic analyses of pathologically defined tumor types identify "within-a-tissue" disease subtypes. However, the extent to which genomic signatures are shared across tissues is still unclear. We performed an integrative analysis using five genome-wide platforms and one proteomic platform on 3,527 specimens from 12 cancer types, revealing a unified classification into 11 major subtypes. Five subtypes were nearly identical to their tissue-of-origin counterparts, but several distinct cancer types were found to converge into common subtypes. Lung squamous, head and neck, and a subset of bladder cancers coalesced into one subtype typified by TP53 alterations, TP63 amplifications, and high expression of immune and proliferation pathway genes. Of note, bladder cancers split into three pan-cancer subtypes. The multiplatform classification, while correlated with tissue-of-origin, provides independent information for predicting clinical outcomes. All data sets are available for data-mining from a unified resource to support further biological discoveries and insights into novel therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Inference of patient-specific pathway activities from multi-dimensional cancer genomics data using PARADIGM

            Motivation: High-throughput data is providing a comprehensive view of the molecular changes in cancer tissues. New technologies allow for the simultaneous genome-wide assay of the state of genome copy number variation, gene expression, DNA methylation and epigenetics of tumor samples and cancer cell lines. Analyses of current data sets find that genetic alterations between patients can differ but often involve common pathways. It is therefore critical to identify relevant pathways involved in cancer progression and detect how they are altered in different patients. Results: We present a novel method for inferring patient-specific genetic activities incorporating curated pathway interactions among genes. A gene is modeled by a factor graph as a set of interconnected variables encoding the expression and known activity of a gene and its products, allowing the incorporation of many types of omic data as evidence. The method predicts the degree to which a pathway's activities (e.g. internal gene states, interactions or high-level ‘outputs’) are altered in the patient using probabilistic inference. Compared with a competing pathway activity inference approach called SPIA, our method identifies altered activities in cancer-related pathways with fewer false-positives in both a glioblastoma multiform (GBM) and a breast cancer dataset. PARADIGM identified consistent pathway-level activities for subsets of the GBM patients that are overlooked when genes are considered in isolation. Further, grouping GBM patients based on their significant pathway perturbations divides them into clinically-relevant subgroups having significantly different survival outcomes. These findings suggest that therapeutics might be chosen that target genes at critical points in the commonly perturbed pathway(s) of a group of patients. Availability:Source code available at http://sbenz.github.com/Paradigm Contact: jstuart@soe.ucsc.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
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              The somatic genomic landscape of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma.

              We describe the landscape of somatic genomic alterations of 66 chromophobe renal cell carcinomas (ChRCCs) on the basis of multidimensional and comprehensive characterization, including mtDNA and whole-genome sequencing. The result is consistent that ChRCC originates from the distal nephron compared with other kidney cancers with more proximal origins. Combined mtDNA and gene expression analysis implicates changes in mitochondrial function as a component of the disease biology, while suggesting alternative roles for mtDNA mutations in cancers relying on oxidative phosphorylation. Genomic rearrangements lead to recurrent structural breakpoints within TERT promoter region, which correlates with highly elevated TERT expression and manifestation of kataegis, representing a mechanism of TERT upregulation in cancer distinct from previously observed amplifications and point mutations.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                a.j.mcknight@qub.ac.uk
                Journal
                Orphanet J Rare Dis
                Orphanet J Rare Dis
                Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
                BioMed Central (London )
                1750-1172
                28 April 2020
                28 April 2020
                2020
                : 15
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.4777.3, ISNI 0000 0004 0374 7521, Centre for Public Health, , Queen’s University Belfast, ; Belfast, Northern Ireland
                [2 ]GRID grid.412914.b, ISNI 0000 0001 0571 3462, Regional Genetics Centre, , Belfast City Hospital, ; Level A, Tower Block, Lisburn Road, Belfast, BT9 7AB Northern Ireland
                Article
                1376
                10.1186/s13023-020-01376-x
                7189570
                32345347
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

                Funding
                Funded by: Department for the Economy Co-operative Awards in Science and Technology (DfE-CAST) studentship award as well as support provided by the Medical Research Council – Northern Ireland Executive support of the Northern Ireland Genomic Medicine Centre though Be
                Funded by: Northern Ireland Kidney Research Fund Fellowship.
                Funded by: SFI-DFE investigator program
                Award ID: 15/IA/3152
                Award Recipient :
                Categories
                Review
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2020

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