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      Self-Esteem, Social Comparison, and Facebook Use

      * , a , , a
      Europe's Journal of Psychology
      Facebook use, self-esteem, social comparison, gender differences, social media

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          Facebook use is very popular among young people, but many open issues remain regarding the individual traits that are antecedents of different behaviours enacted online. This study aimed to investigate whether the relationship between self-esteem and the amount of time on Facebook could be mediated by a tendency towards social comparison. Moreover, three different modalities of Facebook use were distinguished, i.e., social interaction, simulation, and search for relations. Because of gender differences in technology use and social comparison, the mediation models were tested separately for males and females. Data were collected by means of a self-report questionnaire with a sample of 250 undergraduate and graduate Italian students (mean age: 22.18 years). The relations were examined empirically by means of four structural equation models. The results revealed the role of orientation to social comparison in mediating the relations between low self-esteem and some indicators of Facebook use, i.e., daily hours on Facebook and the use of Facebook for simulation. For females, the use of Facebook for social interaction was directly influenced by high self-esteem and indirectly influenced by low self-esteem. Globally, the dimension of social comparison on Facebook emerged as more important for females than for males.

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          Most cited references38

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          Comparative fit indexes in structural models.

          P. Bentler (1990)
          Normed and nonnormed fit indexes are frequently used as adjuncts to chi-square statistics for evaluating the fit of a structural model. A drawback of existing indexes is that they estimate no known population parameters. A new coefficient is proposed to summarize the relative reduction in the noncentrality parameters of two nested models. Two estimators of the coefficient yield new normed (CFI) and nonnormed (FI) fit indexes. CFI avoids the underestimation of fit often noted in small samples for Bentler and Bonett's (1980) normed fit index (NFI). FI is a linear function of Bentler and Bonett's non-normed fit index (NNFI) that avoids the extreme underestimation and overestimation often found in NNFI. Asymptotically, CFI, FI, NFI, and a new index developed by Bollen are equivalent measures of comparative fit, whereas NNFI measures relative fit by comparing noncentrality per degree of freedom. All of the indexes are generalized to permit use of Wald and Lagrange multiplier statistics. An example illustrates the behavior of these indexes under conditions of correct specification and misspecification. The new fit indexes perform very well at all sample sizes.
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            A Theory of Social Comparison Processes

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              Fit indices in covariance structure modeling: Sensitivity to underparameterized model misspecification.


                Author and article information

                Eur J Psychol
                Europe's Journal of Psychology
                Eur. J. Psychol.
                30 November 2018
                : 14
                : 4
                : 831-845
                [a ]Department of Psychology, University of Turin , Turin, Italy
                [2]Department of Psychology, Webster University Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland
                [3]University of Western Ontario, London, Canada
                Author notes
                [* ]Department of Psychology, University of Turin, Via Verdi, 10, 10124, Turin, Italy. elisa.bergagna@ 123456libero.it
                Copyright @ 2018 2018

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) 3.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 24 January 2018
                : 06 June 2018
                Research Reports

                social media,self-esteem,Facebook use,social comparison,gender differences
                social media, self-esteem, Facebook use, social comparison, gender differences


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