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      A Plant-Based Meal Stimulates Incretin and Insulin Secretion More Than an Energy- and Macronutrient-Matched Standard Meal in Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Crossover Study

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          Abstract

          Diminished postprandial secretion of incretins and insulin represents one of the key pathophysiological mechanisms behind type 2 diabetes (T2D). We tested the effects of two energy- and macronutrient-matched meals: A standard meat (M-meal) and a vegan (V-meal) on postprandial incretin and insulin secretion in participants with T2D. A randomized crossover design was used in 20 participants with T2D. Plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), amylin, and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) were determined at 0, 30, 60, 120, and 180 min. Beta-cell function was assessed with a mathematical model, using C-peptide deconvolution. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used for statistical analysis. Postprandial plasma glucose responses were similar after both test meals ( p = 0.64). An increase in the stimulated secretion of insulin (by 30.5%; 95% CI 21.2 to 40.7%; p < 0.001), C-peptide (by 7.1%; 95% CI 4.1 to 9.9%; p < 0.001), and amylin (by 15.7%; 95% CI 11.8 to 19.7%; p < 0.001) was observed following consumption of the V-meal. An increase in stimulated secretion of GLP-1 (by 19.2%; 95% CI 12.4 to 26.7%; p < 0.001) and a decrease in GIP (by −9.4%; 95% CI −17.3 to −0.7%; p = 0.02) were observed after the V-meal. Several parameters of beta-cell function increased after the V-meal, particularly insulin secretion at a fixed glucose value 5 mmol/L, rate sensitivity, and the potentiation factor. Our results showed an increase in postprandial incretin and insulin secretion, after consumption of a V-meal, suggesting a therapeutic potential of plant-based meals for improving beta-cell function in T2D.

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          Most cited references 47

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          Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and beta-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man.

          The steady-state basal plasma glucose and insulin concentrations are determined by their interaction in a feedback loop. A computer-solved model has been used to predict the homeostatic concentrations which arise from varying degrees beta-cell deficiency and insulin resistance. Comparison of a patient's fasting values with the model's predictions allows a quantitative assessment of the contributions of insulin resistance and deficient beta-cell function to the fasting hyperglycaemia (homeostasis model assessment, HOMA). The accuracy and precision of the estimate have been determined by comparison with independent measures of insulin resistance and beta-cell function using hyperglycaemic and euglycaemic clamps and an intravenous glucose tolerance test. The estimate of insulin resistance obtained by homeostasis model assessment correlated with estimates obtained by use of the euglycaemic clamp (Rs = 0.88, p less than 0.0001), the fasting insulin concentration (Rs = 0.81, p less than 0.0001), and the hyperglycaemic clamp, (Rs = 0.69, p less than 0.01). There was no correlation with any aspect of insulin-receptor binding. The estimate of deficient beta-cell function obtained by homeostasis model assessment correlated with that derived using the hyperglycaemic clamp (Rs = 0.61, p less than 0.01) and with the estimate from the intravenous glucose tolerance test (Rs = 0.64, p less than 0.05). The low precision of the estimates from the model (coefficients of variation: 31% for insulin resistance and 32% for beta-cell deficit) limits its use, but the correlation of the model's estimates with patient data accords with the hypothesis that basal glucose and insulin interactions are largely determined by a simple feed back loop.
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            Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and ?-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man

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              Management of Hyperglycemia in Type 2 Diabetes, 2018. A Consensus Report by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD)

              The American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes convened a panel to update the prior position statements, published in 2012 and 2015, on the management of type 2 diabetes in adults. A systematic evaluation of the literature since 2014 informed new recommendations. These include additional focus on lifestyle management and diabetes self-management education and support. For those with obesity, efforts targeting weight loss, including lifestyle, medication, and surgical interventions, are recommended. With regards to medication management, for patients with clinical cardiovascular disease, a sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor or a glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist with proven cardiovascular benefit is recommended. For patients with chronic kidney disease or clinical heart failure and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, an SGLT2 inhibitor with proven benefit is recommended. GLP-1 receptor agonists are generally recommended as the first injectable medication.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nutrients
                Nutrients
                nutrients
                Nutrients
                MDPI
                2072-6643
                26 February 2019
                March 2019
                : 11
                : 3
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, 14021 Prague, Czech Republic; KMarta@ 123456seznam.cz (M.K.); belenka@ 123456volny.cz (L.T.); halm@ 123456ikem.cz (M.H.); renata.pavlovicova@ 123456ikem.cz (R.P.); tepe@ 123456ikem.cz (T.P.)
                [2 ]Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, Washington, 5100 Wisconsin Ave, NW, Suite 400, Washington, DC 20016, USA
                [3 ]Metabolic Unit, CNR Institute of Neuroscience, 35127 Padua, Italy; andrea.tura@ 123456cnr.it
                [4 ]Institute of Endocrinology, 11394 Prague, Czech Republic; mhill@ 123456endo.cz
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: hkahleova@ 123456pcrm.org ; Tel.: +1-202-527-7379
                Article
                nutrients-11-00486
                10.3390/nu11030486
                6471274
                30813546
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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