21
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      A Plant-Based Meal Stimulates Incretin and Insulin Secretion More Than an Energy- and Macronutrient-Matched Standard Meal in Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Crossover Study

      research-article

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Diminished postprandial secretion of incretins and insulin represents one of the key pathophysiological mechanisms behind type 2 diabetes (T2D). We tested the effects of two energy- and macronutrient-matched meals: A standard meat (M-meal) and a vegan (V-meal) on postprandial incretin and insulin secretion in participants with T2D. A randomized crossover design was used in 20 participants with T2D. Plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), amylin, and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) were determined at 0, 30, 60, 120, and 180 min. Beta-cell function was assessed with a mathematical model, using C-peptide deconvolution. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used for statistical analysis. Postprandial plasma glucose responses were similar after both test meals ( p = 0.64). An increase in the stimulated secretion of insulin (by 30.5%; 95% CI 21.2 to 40.7%; p < 0.001), C-peptide (by 7.1%; 95% CI 4.1 to 9.9%; p < 0.001), and amylin (by 15.7%; 95% CI 11.8 to 19.7%; p < 0.001) was observed following consumption of the V-meal. An increase in stimulated secretion of GLP-1 (by 19.2%; 95% CI 12.4 to 26.7%; p < 0.001) and a decrease in GIP (by −9.4%; 95% CI −17.3 to −0.7%; p = 0.02) were observed after the V-meal. Several parameters of beta-cell function increased after the V-meal, particularly insulin secretion at a fixed glucose value 5 mmol/L, rate sensitivity, and the potentiation factor. Our results showed an increase in postprandial incretin and insulin secretion, after consumption of a V-meal, suggesting a therapeutic potential of plant-based meals for improving beta-cell function in T2D.

          Related collections

          Most cited references36

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Effect of 6-week course of glucagon-like peptide 1 on glycaemic control, insulin sensitivity, and beta-cell function in type 2 diabetes: a parallel-group study.

          Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) has been proposed as a treatment for type 2 diabetes. We have investigated the long-term effects of continuous administration of this peptide hormone in a 6-week pilot study. 20 patients with type 2 diabetes were alternately assigned continuous subcutaneous infusion of GLP-1 (n=10) or saline (n=10) for 6 weeks. Before (week 0) and at weeks 1 and 6, they underwent beta-cell function tests (hyperglycaemic clamps), 8 h profiles of plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, and free fatty acids, and appetite and side-effect ratings on 100 mm visual analogue scales; at weeks 0 and 6 they also underwent dexascanning, measurement of insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamps), haemoglobin A(1c), and fructosamine. The primary endpoints were haemoglobin A(1c) concentration, 8-h profile of glucose concentration in plasma, and beta-cell function (defined as the first-phase response to glucose and the maximum insulin secretory capacity of the cell). Analyses were per protocol. One patient assigned saline was excluded because no veins were accessible. In the remaining nine patients in that group, no significant changes were observed except an increase in fructosamine concentration (p=0.0004). In the GLP-1 group, fasting and 8 h mean plasma glucose decreased by 4.3 mmol/L and 5.5 mmol/L (p<0.0001). Haemoglobin A(1c) decreased by 1.3% (p=0.003) and fructosamine fell to normal values (p=0.0002). Fasting and 8 h mean concentrations of free fatty acids decreased by 30% and 23% (p=0.0005 and 0.01, respectively). Gastric emptying was inhibited, bodyweight decreased by 1.9 kg, and appetite was reduced. Both insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function improved (p=0.003 and p=0.003, respectively). No important side-effects were seen. GLP-1 could be a new treatment for type 2 diabetes, though further investigation of the long-term effects of GLP-1 is needed.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Red meat consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: 3 cohorts of US adults and an updated meta-analysis.

            The relation between consumption of different types of red meats and risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains uncertain. We evaluated the association between unprocessed and processed red meat consumption and incident T2D in US adults. We followed 37,083 men in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986-2006), 79,570 women in the Nurses' Health Study I (1980-2008), and 87,504 women in the Nurses' Health Study II (1991-2005). Diet was assessed by validated food-frequency questionnaires, and data were updated every 4 y. Incident T2D was confirmed by a validated supplementary questionnaire. During 4,033,322 person-years of follow-up, we documented 13,759 incident T2D cases. After adjustment for age, BMI, and other lifestyle and dietary risk factors, both unprocessed and processed red meat intakes were positively associated with T2D risk in each cohort (all P-trend <0.001). The pooled HRs (95% CIs) for a one serving/d increase in unprocessed, processed, and total red meat consumption were 1.12 (1.08, 1.16), 1.32 (1.25, 1.40), and 1.14 (1.10, 1.18), respectively. The results were confirmed by a meta-analysis (442,101 participants and 28,228 diabetes cases): the RRs (95% CIs) were 1.19 (1.04, 1.37) and 1.51 (1.25, 1.83) for 100 g unprocessed red meat/d and for 50 g processed red meat/d, respectively. We estimated that substitutions of one serving of nuts, low-fat dairy, and whole grains per day for one serving of red meat per day were associated with a 16-35% lower risk of T2D. Our results suggest that red meat consumption, particularly processed red meat, is associated with an increased risk of T2D.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Incretin effects of increasing glucose loads in man calculated from venous insulin and C-peptide responses.

              Integrated insulin secretion rates calculated from peripheral venous C-peptide measurements by two-compartment kinetic analysis were measured in six young normal subjects after increasing oral glucose loads of 25, 50, and 100 g and respective isoglycemic glucose infusions. The differences in B-cell secretory responses between oral and iv glucose challenges were attributed to factors other than glycemia itself (incretin effect). Both insulin and C-peptide concentrations as well as calculated integrated insulin secretion rates increased with increasing oral glucose loads. Due to the similarity in the glucose profiles after all oral loads, almost identical amounts of iv glucose (approximately 20 g) were infused in all "isoglycemic" infusion experiments, with resulting similar hormone profiles and insulin secretion rates. The percent contribution of incretin factors to total immunoreactive insulin responses after 25, 50, and 100 g glucose (85.6%, 74.9%, and 93.0%; response to oral load, 100%) was significantly higher than their contribution to integrated C-peptide responses (27.6-62.9%) or calculated integrated insulin secretion rates (19.2-61.0%). These findings indicate that the degree of incretin stimulation of insulin secretion depends on the amount of glucose ingested. A discrepancy between the estimates of the incretin effect derived from peripheral venous insulin responses, on the one hand, and C-peptide responses or calculated insulin secretion rates, on the other hand, exists. Inasmuch as peripheral insulin values reflect both insulin secretion and hepatic insulin removal, this discrepancy suggests that elimination kinetics of insulin differ between oral and iv glucose administration. This difference can be related to a significantly reduced fractional hepatic insulin extraction after oral (46.9-54.6%) compared to iv (63.4-76.5%) glucose administration when calculated by a three-compartment kinetic model. This reduction in fractional hepatic insulin extraction could be caused by gastrointestinal factors (hormones or nerves) stimulated in the course of glucose ingestion.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nutrients
                Nutrients
                nutrients
                Nutrients
                MDPI
                2072-6643
                26 February 2019
                March 2019
                : 11
                : 3
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, 14021 Prague, Czech Republic; KMarta@ 123456seznam.cz (M.K.); belenka@ 123456volny.cz (L.T.); halm@ 123456ikem.cz (M.H.); renata.pavlovicova@ 123456ikem.cz (R.P.); tepe@ 123456ikem.cz (T.P.)
                [2 ]Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, Washington, 5100 Wisconsin Ave, NW, Suite 400, Washington, DC 20016, USA
                [3 ]Metabolic Unit, CNR Institute of Neuroscience, 35127 Padua, Italy; andrea.tura@ 123456cnr.it
                [4 ]Institute of Endocrinology, 11394 Prague, Czech Republic; mhill@ 123456endo.cz
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: hkahleova@ 123456pcrm.org ; Tel.: +1-202-527-7379
                Article
                nutrients-11-00486
                10.3390/nu11030486
                6471274
                30813546
                778e0c1c-5d9e-4e84-a3b8-41d68fda52fb
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                Nutrition & Dietetics
                beta-cell function,incretins,insulin resistance,nutrition,plant-based,type 2 diabetes

                Comments

                Comment on this article