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      Transcriptome profiling of anthocyanin-related genes reveals effects of light intensity on anthocyanin biosynthesis in red leaf lettuce

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          Abstract

          Red leaf lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.) is popular due to its high anthocyanin content, but poor leaf coloring often occurs under low light intensity. In order to reveal the mechanisms of anthocyanins affected by light intensity, we compared the transcriptome of L. sativa L. var. capitata under light intensities of 40 and 100 μmol m −2 s −1. A total of 62,111 unigenes were de novo assembled with an N50 of 1,681 bp, and 48,435 unigenes were functionally annotated in public databases. A total of 3,899 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected, of which 1,377 unigenes were up-regulated and 2,552 unigenes were down-regulated in the high light samples. By Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analysis, the DEGs were significantly enriched in 14 pathways. Using gene annotation and phylogenetic analysis, we identified seven anthocyanin structural genes, including CHS, CHI, F3H, F3′H, DFR, ANS, and 3GT, and two anthocyanin transport genes, GST and MATE. In terms of anthocyanin regulatory genes, five MYBs and one bHLH gene were identified. An HY5 gene was discovered, which may respond to light-signaling and regulate anthocyanin structural genes. These genes showed a log2FC of 2.7–9.0 under high irradiance, and were validated using quantitative real-time-PCR. In conclusion, our results indicated transcriptome variance in red leaf lettuce under low and high light intensity, and observed a anthocyanin biosynthesis and regulation pattern. The data should further help to unravel the molecular mechanisms of anthocyanins influenced by light intensity.

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          Most cited references 31

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          TIGR Gene Indices clustering tools (TGICL): a software system for fast clustering of large EST datasets.

          TGICL is a pipeline for analysis of large Expressed Sequence Tags (EST) and mRNA databases in which the sequences are first clustered based on pairwise sequence similarity, and then assembled by individual clusters (optionally with quality values) to produce longer, more complete consensus sequences. The system can run on multi-CPU architectures including SMP and PVM.
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            A network of redundant bHLH proteins functions in all TTG1-dependent pathways of Arabidopsis.

            GLABRA3 (GL3) encodes a bHLH protein that interacts with the WD repeat protein, TTG1. GL3 overexpression suppresses the trichome defect of the pleiotropic ttg1 mutations. However, single gl3 mutations only affect the trichome pathway with a modest trichome number reduction. A novel unlinked bHLH-encoding locus is described here, ENHANCER OF GLABRA3 (EGL3). When mutated, egl3 gives totally glabrous plants only in the gl3 mutant background. The double bHLH mutant, gl3 egl3, has a pleiotropic phenotype like ttg1 having defective anthocyanin production, seed coat mucilage production, and position-dependent root hair spacing. Furthermore, the triple bHLH mutant, gl3 egl3 tt8, phenocopies the ttg1 mutation. Yeast two-hybrid and plant overexpression studies show that EGL3, like GL3, interacts with TTG1, the myb proteins GL1, PAP1 and 2, CPC and TRY, and it will form heterodimers with GL3. These results suggest a combinatorial model for TTG1-dependent pathway regulation by this trio of partially functionally redundant bHLH proteins.
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              The photomorphogenic repressors COP1 and DET1: 20 years later.

               On Sun Lau,  Xing Deng (2012)
              COP1 and DET1 are among the first repressors of photomorphogenesis to be identified, more than 20 years ago. Discovery of these repressors as conserved regulators of the ubiquitin-proteasome system has established protein degradation as a central theme in light signal transduction. COP1 is a RING E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets key regulators for degradation, and DET1 complexes with COP10 and DDB1, which is proposed to aid in COP1-mediated degradation. Recent studies have strengthened the role of COP1 as a major signaling center. DET1 is also emerging as a chromatin regulator in repressing gene expression. Here, we review current understanding on COP1 and DET1, with a focus on their role as part of two distinct, multimeric CUL4-based E3 ligases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                PeerJ
                PeerJ
                PeerJ
                PeerJ
                PeerJ
                PeerJ Inc. (San Francisco, USA )
                2167-8359
                13 April 2018
                2018
                : 6
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Life Science Department, Luoyang Normal University , Luoyang, China
                [2 ] Luoyang Research Institute of Peony , Luoyang, China
                Article
                4607
                10.7717/peerj.4607
                5900932
                © 2018 Zhang et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, reproduction and adaptation in any medium and for any purpose provided that it is properly attributed. For attribution, the original author(s), title, publication source (PeerJ) and either DOI or URL of the article must be cited.

                Funding
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation
                Award ID: 31400602
                Funded by: Henan Province Science and Technology Breakthrough Project
                Award ID: 172102310054
                Funded by: Applied Science and Technology Research Fund of Luoyang Normal University
                Award ID: 2015-YYJJ-003
                This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation (31400602), the Henan Province Science and Technology Breakthrough Project (172102310054), and the Applied Science and Technology Research Fund of Luoyang Normal University (2015-YYJJ-003). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Categories
                Genomics
                Plant Science

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