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      Oxcarbazepine-Induced Hyponatremia: A Case Report and Comprehensive Literature Review

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          Abstract

          Oxcarbazepine is a well-known and effective anti-convulsant used for patients with underlying seizure disorder. It is a structural analog of carbamazepine; however, it follows a different metabolic pathway in which it is converted to a different active metabolite. Side effects associated with this medication are vast; however, in this report, we will hone in on the renal adverse effects, e.g., syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuretic hormone secretion (SiADH). SiADH is a condition in which the body is making too much anti-diuretic hormone, which, in turn, results in "too much" water absorption, causing hyponatremia with neurologic sequelae. Our patient is a 31-year-old gentleman with a history of depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, and previous suicide attempts who presented to the emergency department following oxcarbazepine overdose and was subsequently found to be hyponatremic secondary to having SiADH.

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          Most cited references 7

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          Clinical management of SIADH.

           Peter Gross (2012)
          Hyponatremia is the most frequent electrolyte disorder and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) accounts for approximately one-third of all cases. In the diagnosis of SIADH it is important to ascertain the euvolemic state of extracellular fluid volume, both clinically and by laboratory measurements. SIADH should be treated to cure symptoms. While this is undisputed in the presence of grave or advanced symptoms, the clinical role and the indications for treatment in the presence of mild to moderate symptoms are currently unclear. Therapeutic modalities include nonspecific measures and means (fluid restriction, hypertonic saline, urea, demeclocycline), with fluid restriction and hypertonic saline commonly used. Recently vasopressin receptor antagonists, called vaptans, have been introduced as specific and direct therapy of SIADH. Although clinical experience with vaptans is limited at this time, they appear advantageous to patients because there is no need for fluid restriction and the correction of hyponatremia can be achieved comfortably and within a short time. Vaptans also appear to be beneficial for physicians and staff because of their efficiency and reliability. The side effects are thirst, polydipsia and frequency of urination. In any therapy of chronic SIADH it is important to limit the daily increase of serum sodium to less than 8-10 mmol/liter because higher correction rates have been associated with osmotic demyelination. In the case of vaptan treatment, the first 24 h are critical for prevention of an overly rapid correction of hyponatremia and the serum sodium should be measured after 0, 6, 24 and 48 h of treatment. Discontinuation of any vaptan therapy for longer than 5 or 6 days should be monitored to prevent hyponatremic relapse. It may be necessary to taper the vaptan dose or restrict fluid intake or both.
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            Frequency of and risk factors for oxcarbazepine-induced severe and symptomatic hyponatremia

             YS Kim,  DW Kim,  KH Jung (2014)
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              Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion

              (2021)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cureus
                Cureus
                2168-8184
                Cureus
                Cureus (Palo Alto (CA) )
                2168-8184
                18 May 2021
                May 2021
                : 13
                : 5
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Internal Medicine, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School/Trinitas Regional Medical Center, Elizabeth, USA
                [2 ] Internal Medicine, Trinitas Regional Medical Center, Elizabeth, USA
                [3 ] Internal Medicine, St George's University, True Blue, GRD
                [4 ] Nephrology, Trinitas Regional Medical Center, Elizabeth, USA
                Author notes
                Article
                10.7759/cureus.15085
                8209760
                Copyright © 2021, Ejikeme et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Internal Medicine
                Nephrology
                Hematology

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