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      Abundance, distribution and diversity of gelatinous predators along the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge: A comparison of different sampling methodologies

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          Abstract

          The diversity and distribution of gelatinous zooplankton were investigated along the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) from June to August 2004.Here, we present results from macrozooplankton trawl sampling, as well as comparisons made between five different methodologies that were employed during the MAR-ECO survey. In total, 16 species of hydromedusae, 31 species of siphonophores and four species of scyphozoans were identified to species level from macrozooplankton trawl samples. Additional taxa were identified to higher taxonomic levels and a single ctenophore genus was observed. Samples were collected at 17 stations along the MAR between the Azores and Iceland. A divergence in the species assemblages was observed at the southern limit of the Subpolar Frontal Zone. The catch composition of gelatinous zooplankton is compared between different sampling methodologies including: a macrozooplankton trawl; a Multinet; a ringnet attached to bottom trawl; and optical platforms (Underwater Video Profiler (UVP) & Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV)). Different sampling methodologies are shown to exhibit selectivity towards different groups of gelatinous zooplankton. Only ~21% of taxa caught during the survey were caught by both the macrozooplankton trawl and the Multinet when deployed at the same station. The estimates of gelatinous zooplankton abundance calculated using these two gear types also varied widely (1.4 ± 0.9 individuals 1000 m -3 estimated by the macrozooplankton trawl vs. 468.3 ± 315.4 individuals 1000 m -3 estimated by the Multinet (mean ± s.d.) when used at the same stations (n = 6). While it appears that traditional net sampling can generate useful data on pelagic cnidarians, comparisons with results from the optical platforms suggest that ctenophore diversity and abundance are consistently underestimated, particularly when net sampling is conducted in combination with formalin fixation. The results emphasise the importance of considering sampling methodology both when planning surveys, as well as when interpreting existing data.

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          New development in the MOCNESS, an apparatus for sampling zooplankton and micronekton

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            Rise and fall of jellyfish in the eastern Bering Sea in relation to climate regime shifts

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: InvestigationRole: VisualizationRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Funding acquisitionRole: InvestigationRole: Project administrationRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: InvestigationRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Investigation
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                2 November 2017
                2017
                : 12
                : 11
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Natural History, University Museum of Bergen, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
                [2 ] Institute of Marine Research, Flødevigen, Norway
                [3 ] North West Wildlife Trusts, Plumgarths, Kendal, Cumbria, England
                [4 ] Institut de Ciencies del Mar (CSIC), Barcelona, Spain
                Evergreen State College, UNITED STATES
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Article
                PONE-D-17-00089
                10.1371/journal.pone.0187491
                5667825
                29095891
                © 2017 Hosia et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 3, Pages: 18
                Product
                Funding
                This study was an element of MAR-ECO (2001–2010), a field project of the Census of Marine Life, funded by the Sloan Foundation. The Institute of Marine Research and the University of Bergen, Norway, contributed ship-time. More information about MAR-ECO funding can be found at http://www.mar-eco.no/about/sponsors.html. AH has received funding from the Research Council of Norway (RCN, http://www.forskningsradet.no/, project no. 146994/120) at the time of the study, and currently from the Norwegian Taxonomy Initiative (NTI, http://www.biodiversity.no/, project no. 70184233/HYPNO) as well as ForBio Research School funding from the RCN (project no. 248799) and the NTI (project no. 70184215). The external funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Eukaryota
                Animals
                Invertebrates
                Plankton
                Zooplankton
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Taxonomy
                Computer and Information Sciences
                Data Management
                Taxonomy
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Aquatic Environments
                Marine Environments
                Sea Water
                Earth Sciences
                Marine and Aquatic Sciences
                Aquatic Environments
                Marine Environments
                Sea Water
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Biogeography
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Biogeography
                Earth Sciences
                Geography
                Biogeography
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Biogeography
                Phylogeography
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Biogeography
                Phylogeography
                Earth Sciences
                Geography
                Biogeography
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                Biology and Life Sciences
                Evolutionary Biology
                Population Genetics
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                Biology and Life Sciences
                Genetics
                Population Genetics
                Phylogeography
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Population Biology
                Population Genetics
                Phylogeography
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Ecology
                Ecological Metrics
                Species Diversity
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Ecology
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                Custom metadata
                Total data on cnidarians and ctenophores from the macrozooplankton trawl is available in supplementary S1 Table. All other data (Multinet, ring net, ROV, UVP) used for the between gears comparisons is available in the following publications: Hosia A, Stemmann L, Youngbluth M. Distribution of net-collected planktonic cnidarians along the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge and their associations with the main water masses. Deep-Sea Research Part Ii-Topical Studies in Oceanography. 2008;55(1-2):106-18. 10.1016/j.dsr2.2007.09.007. Stemmann L, Hosia A, Youngbluth MJ, Soiland H, Picheral M, Gorsky G. Vertical distribution (0-1000 m) of macrozooplankton, estimated using the Underwater Video Profiler, in different hydrographic regimes along the northern portion of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Deep-Sea Research Part Ii-Topical Studies in Oceanography. 2008;55(1-2):94-105. 10.1016/j.dsr2.2007.09.019. Youngbluth M, Sornes T, Hosia A, Stemmann L. Vertical distribution and relative abundance of gelatinous zooplankton, in situ observations near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Deep-Sea Research Part Ii-Topical Studies in Oceanography. 2008;55(1-2):119-25. 10.1016/j.dsr2.2007.10.002.

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