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Abundance, distribution and diversity of gelatinous predators along the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge: A comparison of different sampling methodologies

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      Abstract

      The diversity and distribution of gelatinous zooplankton were investigated along the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) from June to August 2004.Here, we present results from macrozooplankton trawl sampling, as well as comparisons made between five different methodologies that were employed during the MAR-ECO survey. In total, 16 species of hydromedusae, 31 species of siphonophores and four species of scyphozoans were identified to species level from macrozooplankton trawl samples. Additional taxa were identified to higher taxonomic levels and a single ctenophore genus was observed. Samples were collected at 17 stations along the MAR between the Azores and Iceland. A divergence in the species assemblages was observed at the southern limit of the Subpolar Frontal Zone. The catch composition of gelatinous zooplankton is compared between different sampling methodologies including: a macrozooplankton trawl; a Multinet; a ringnet attached to bottom trawl; and optical platforms (Underwater Video Profiler (UVP) & Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV)). Different sampling methodologies are shown to exhibit selectivity towards different groups of gelatinous zooplankton. Only ~21% of taxa caught during the survey were caught by both the macrozooplankton trawl and the Multinet when deployed at the same station. The estimates of gelatinous zooplankton abundance calculated using these two gear types also varied widely (1.4 ± 0.9 individuals 1000 m-3 estimated by the macrozooplankton trawl vs. 468.3 ± 315.4 individuals 1000 m-3 estimated by the Multinet (mean ± s.d.) when used at the same stations (n = 6). While it appears that traditional net sampling can generate useful data on pelagic cnidarians, comparisons with results from the optical platforms suggest that ctenophore diversity and abundance are consistently underestimated, particularly when net sampling is conducted in combination with formalin fixation. The results emphasise the importance of considering sampling methodology both when planning surveys, as well as when interpreting existing data.

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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ] Department of Natural History, University Museum of Bergen, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
            [2 ] Institute of Marine Research, Flødevigen, Norway
            [3 ] North West Wildlife Trusts, Plumgarths, Kendal, Cumbria, England
            [4 ] Institut de Ciencies del Mar (CSIC), Barcelona, Spain
            Evergreen State College, UNITED STATES
            Author notes

            Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

            Contributors
            ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7664-6498, Role: Conceptualization, Role: Data curation, Role: Formal analysis, Role: Investigation, Role: Visualization, Role: Writing – original draft, Role: Writing – review & editing
            Role: Conceptualization, Role: Data curation, Role: Funding acquisition, Role: Investigation, Role: Project administration, Role: Writing – original draft, Role: Writing – review & editing
            Role: Investigation, Role: Writing – review & editing
            Role: Investigation
            Role: Editor
            Journal
            PLoS One
            PLoS ONE
            plos
            plosone
            PLoS ONE
            Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
            1932-6203
            2 November 2017
            2017
            : 12
            : 11
            29095891
            5667825
            10.1371/journal.pone.0187491
            PONE-D-17-00089
            (Editor)
            © 2017 Hosia et al

            This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

            Counts
            Figures: 5, Tables: 3, Pages: 18
            Product
            Funding
            This study was an element of MAR-ECO (2001–2010), a field project of the Census of Marine Life, funded by the Sloan Foundation. The Institute of Marine Research and the University of Bergen, Norway, contributed ship-time. More information about MAR-ECO funding can be found at http://www.mar-eco.no/about/sponsors.html. AH has received funding from the Research Council of Norway (RCN, http://www.forskningsradet.no/, project no. 146994/120) at the time of the study, and currently from the Norwegian Taxonomy Initiative (NTI, http://www.biodiversity.no/, project no. 70184233/HYPNO) as well as ForBio Research School funding from the RCN (project no. 248799) and the NTI (project no. 70184215). The external funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
            Categories
            Research Article
            Biology and Life Sciences
            Organisms
            Eukaryota
            Animals
            Invertebrates
            Plankton
            Zooplankton
            Biology and Life Sciences
            Taxonomy
            Computer and Information Sciences
            Data Management
            Taxonomy
            Ecology and Environmental Sciences
            Aquatic Environments
            Marine Environments
            Sea Water
            Earth Sciences
            Marine and Aquatic Sciences
            Aquatic Environments
            Marine Environments
            Sea Water
            Biology and Life Sciences
            Biogeography
            Ecology and Environmental Sciences
            Biogeography
            Earth Sciences
            Geography
            Biogeography
            Biology and Life Sciences
            Biogeography
            Phylogeography
            Ecology and Environmental Sciences
            Biogeography
            Phylogeography
            Earth Sciences
            Geography
            Biogeography
            Phylogeography
            Biology and Life Sciences
            Evolutionary Biology
            Population Genetics
            Phylogeography
            Biology and Life Sciences
            Genetics
            Population Genetics
            Phylogeography
            Biology and Life Sciences
            Population Biology
            Population Genetics
            Phylogeography
            Biology and Life Sciences
            Ecology
            Ecological Metrics
            Species Diversity
            Ecology and Environmental Sciences
            Ecology
            Ecological Metrics
            Species Diversity
            Medicine and Health Sciences
            Infectious Diseases
            Viral Diseases
            SARS
            Earth Sciences
            Marine and Aquatic Sciences
            Oceanography
            Water Columns
            Custom metadata
            Total data on cnidarians and ctenophores from the macrozooplankton trawl is available in supplementary S1 Table. All other data (Multinet, ring net, ROV, UVP) used for the between gears comparisons is available in the following publications: Hosia A, Stemmann L, Youngbluth M. Distribution of net-collected planktonic cnidarians along the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge and their associations with the main water masses. Deep-Sea Research Part Ii-Topical Studies in Oceanography. 2008;55(1-2):106-18. 10.1016/j.dsr2.2007.09.007. Stemmann L, Hosia A, Youngbluth MJ, Soiland H, Picheral M, Gorsky G. Vertical distribution (0-1000 m) of macrozooplankton, estimated using the Underwater Video Profiler, in different hydrographic regimes along the northern portion of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Deep-Sea Research Part Ii-Topical Studies in Oceanography. 2008;55(1-2):94-105. 10.1016/j.dsr2.2007.09.019. Youngbluth M, Sornes T, Hosia A, Stemmann L. Vertical distribution and relative abundance of gelatinous zooplankton, in situ observations near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Deep-Sea Research Part Ii-Topical Studies in Oceanography. 2008;55(1-2):119-25. 10.1016/j.dsr2.2007.10.002.

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