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      Archaeal DNA Replication

      1 , 2

      Annual Review of Genetics

      Annual Reviews

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          Abstract

          DNA replication is essential for all life forms. Although the process is fundamentally conserved in the three domains of life, bioinformatic, biochemical, structural, and genetic studies have demonstrated that the process and the proteins involved in archaeal DNA replication are more similar to those in eukaryal DNA replication than in bacterial DNA replication, but have some archaeal-specific features. The archaeal replication system, however, is not monolithic, and there are some differences in the replication process between different species. In this review, the current knowledge of the mechanisms governing DNA replication in Archaea is summarized. The general features of the replication process as well as some of the differences are discussed.

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          Most cited references 180

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          Phylogenetic structure of the prokaryotic domain: The primary kingdoms

           C Woese,  G. Fox (1977)
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            Concerted loading of Mcm2-7 double hexamers around DNA during DNA replication origin licensing.

            The licensing of eukaryotic DNA replication origins, which ensures once-per-cell-cycle replication, involves the loading of six related minichromosome maintenance proteins (Mcm2-7) into prereplicative complexes (pre-RCs). Mcm2-7 forms the core of the replicative DNA helicase, which is inactive in the pre-RC. The loading of Mcm2-7 onto DNA requires the origin recognition complex (ORC), Cdc6, and Cdt1, and depends on ATP. We have reconstituted Mcm2-7 loading with purified budding yeast proteins. Using biochemical approaches and electron microscopy, we show that single heptamers of Cdt1*Mcm2-7 are loaded cooperatively and result in association of stable, head-to-head Mcm2-7 double hexamers connected via their N-terminal rings. DNA runs through a central channel in the double hexamer, and, once loaded, Mcm2-7 can slide passively along double-stranded DNA. Our work has significant implications for understanding how eukaryotic DNA replication origins are chosen and licensed, how replisomes assemble during initiation, and how unwinding occurs during DNA replication.
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              Structure of the C-terminal region of p21(WAF1/CIP1) complexed with human PCNA.

              The crystal structure of the human DNA polymerase delta processivity factor PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) complexed with a 22 residue peptide derived from the C-terminus of the cell-cycle checkpoint protein p21(WAF1/CIP1) has been determined at 2.6 angstrom resolution. p21 binds to PCNA in a 1:1 stoichiometry with an extensive array of interactions that include the formation of a beta sheet with the interdomain connector loop of PCNA. An intact trimeric ring is maintained in the structure of the p21-PCNA complex, with a central hole available for DNA interaction. The ability of p21 to inhibit the action of PCNA is therefore likely to be due to its masking of elements on PCNA that are required for the binding of other components of the polymerase assembly.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Annual Review of Genetics
                Annu. Rev. Genet.
                Annual Reviews
                0066-4197
                1545-2948
                November 23 2014
                November 23 2014
                : 48
                : 1
                : 71-97
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Program in Biotechnology, Montgomery College, Germantown, Maryland 20876; email:
                [2 ]National Institute of Standards and Technology and Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology Research, Rockville, Maryland 20850; email:
                Article
                10.1146/annurev-genet-120213-092148
                25421597
                © 2014

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