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      Risiken in Familien

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          Risiken in der Familie werden unter dem Blickwinkel der elterlichen Erziehungskompetenz und Sensitivität für die Bedürfnisse von Kindern betrachtet. Als besondere Belastungen in der kindlichen Entwicklung sind Misshandlungen/Missbrauch durch die eigenen Eltern und psychische Krankheiten der Eltern anzuführen. Solche Extremsituationen für Kinder können durch neue familienorientierte Behandlungsansätze in ihren Auswirkungen begrenzt werden. Die Kenntnis von familiären Risikofaktoren ermöglicht auch den Einsatz von Präventionsmaßnahmen.

          Risks in families

          Risks in families are considered with regard to parenting skills and sensitivity to the needs of children. Parental abuse and misuse as well as psychological impairments of the parents are considered to be special burdens for child development. The impacts of such extreme situations can be limited by family-oriented interventions. Knowledge of familial risk factors also allows the use of prevention programs.

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          Most cited references 18

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          Long-term effects from a randomized trial of two public health preventive interventions for parental depression.

          This article presents long-term effects of a randomized trial evaluating 2 standardized, manual-based prevention strategies for families with parental mood disorder: informational lectures and a brief, clinician-based approach including child assessment and a family meeting. A sample of 105 families, in which at least 1 parent suffered from a mood disorder and at least 1 nondepressed child was within the 8- to 15-year age range, was recruited. Parents and children were assessed separately at baseline and every 9 to 12 months thereafter on behavioral functioning, psychopathology, and response to intervention. Both interventions produced sustained effects through the 6th assessment point, approximately 4.5 years after enrollment, with relatively small sample loss of families (<14%). Clinician-based families had significantly more gains in parental child-related behaviors and attitudes and in child-reported understanding of parental disorder. Child and parent family functioning increased for both groups and internalizing symptoms decreased for both groups, with no significant group differences. These findings demonstrate that brief, family-centered preventive interventions for parental depression may contribute to long-term, sustained improvements in family functioning.
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            Effects of early child-care on cognition, language, and task-related behaviours at 18 months: an English study.

            This study investigated the effects of different characteristics of early child-care in England on the development of cognition, language, and task-related attention and behaviour (orientation/engagement and emotion regulation during the Bayley assessment) at 18 months. Data were drawn from a prospective longitudinal study of 1,201 infants. As found in previous studies, socio-demographic characteristics and maternal caregiving (especially 'opportunities for stimulation') were significant predictors of all child outcomes. There were also effects of quantity of individual and group care, and quality of non-maternal care. Controlling for demographics and maternal caregiving, more hours of group care (nurseries) were related to higher cognitive scores, while more hours of individual care (e.g., grandparents, nannies etc.) were related to lower orientation/engagement scores. Non-maternal caregiving was observed in a subsample of 345 children, and after controlling for all covariates as well as quantity and stability of care, quality of care was found to be predictive of higher cognitive ability and better orientation/engagement. Although the effect sizes were small in magnitude, in line with other similar studies, such modest effects from a large English sample are important when viewed in light of the widespread use of non-maternal care during infancy and early childhood. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.
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              Erziehungskompetenz und Elterntraining


                Author and article information

                Kindheit und Entwicklung
                Zeitschrift für Klinische Kinderpsychologie
                Hogrefe Verlag, Göttingen
                Januar 2013
                : 22
                : 1
                : 1-4
                [ 1 ] Zentrum für Klinische Psychologie und Rehabilitation der Universität Bremen
                Author notes
                Prof. Dr. Ulrike Petermann, Prof. Dr. Franz Petermann, Zentrum für Klinische Psychologie und Rehabilitation, der Universität Bremen, Grazer Straße 6, 28359 Bremen, E-Mail: upeterm@
                Self URI (journal-page):


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