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      Revision and description of six species of Choeradoplana (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida), with an emendation to the genus

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          Living representatives of the Neotropical genus Choeradoplana Graff, 1896 ( Geoplaninae , Tricladida , Platyhelminthes ) are easily recognized by the typical shape of the head which is laterally expanded, rolled-up, and ventrally provided with two glandular cushions. In this study, the morphology and phylogeny (cytochrome C oxidase subunit I gene) of several species of land planarians are taxonomically investigated. Four of the six species studied are new to science, namely: Ch. eudoxiae Silva & Carbayo, sp. nov., Ch. claudioi Lago-Barcia & Carbayo, sp. nov., Ch. onae Lago-Barcia & Carbayo, sp. nov., and Ch. riutortae Lago-Barcia & Carbayo, sp. nov. The species Choeradoplana albonigra and Ch. eudoxiae deviate from the usual body shape pattern in that the head does not present lateral expansions nor glandular cushions, becoming indistinguishable from its sister genus Cephaloflexa . Pseudogeoplana tristriata (Schultze & Müller, 1857) is also redescribed from a newly collected specimen and was discovered to be a member of Choeradoplana . Graff (1899) also studied another specimen that was considered to be conspecific with P. tristriata ; however, in this new it is concluded that it is not conspecific but rather a new species. The name Pseudogeoplana aevipandemiae Lago-Barcia & Carbayo, sp. nov. is suggested for Graff’s specimen.

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          MrBayes 3.2: Efficient Bayesian Phylogenetic Inference and Model Choice Across a Large Model Space

          Since its introduction in 2001, MrBayes has grown in popularity as a software package for Bayesian phylogenetic inference using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. With this note, we announce the release of version 3.2, a major upgrade to the latest official release presented in 2003. The new version provides convergence diagnostics and allows multiple analyses to be run in parallel with convergence progress monitored on the fly. The introduction of new proposals and automatic optimization of tuning parameters has improved convergence for many problems. The new version also sports significantly faster likelihood calculations through streaming single-instruction-multiple-data extensions (SSE) and support of the BEAGLE library, allowing likelihood calculations to be delegated to graphics processing units (GPUs) on compatible hardware. Speedup factors range from around 2 with SSE code to more than 50 with BEAGLE for codon problems. Checkpointing across all models allows long runs to be completed even when an analysis is prematurely terminated. New models include relaxed clocks, dating, model averaging across time-reversible substitution models, and support for hard, negative, and partial (backbone) tree constraints. Inference of species trees from gene trees is supported by full incorporation of the Bayesian estimation of species trees (BEST) algorithms. Marginal model likelihoods for Bayes factor tests can be estimated accurately across the entire model space using the stepping stone method. The new version provides more output options than previously, including samples of ancestral states, site rates, site d N /d S rations, branch rates, and node dates. A wide range of statistics on tree parameters can also be output for visualization in FigTree and compatible software.
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            RAxML-VI-HPC: maximum likelihood-based phylogenetic analyses with thousands of taxa and mixed models.

            RAxML-VI-HPC (randomized axelerated maximum likelihood for high performance computing) is a sequential and parallel program for inference of large phylogenies with maximum likelihood (ML). Low-level technical optimizations, a modification of the search algorithm, and the use of the GTR+CAT approximation as replacement for GTR+Gamma yield a program that is between 2.7 and 52 times faster than the previous version of RAxML. A large-scale performance comparison with GARLI, PHYML, IQPNNI and MrBayes on real data containing 1000 up to 6722 taxa shows that RAxML requires at least 5.6 times less main memory and yields better trees in similar times than the best competing program (GARLI) on datasets up to 2500 taxa. On datasets > or =4000 taxa it also runs 2-3 times faster than GARLI. RAxML has been parallelized with MPI to conduct parallel multiple bootstraps and inferences on distinct starting trees. The program has been used to compute ML trees on two of the largest alignments to date containing 25,057 (1463 bp) and 2182 (51,089 bp) taxa, respectively. icwww.epfl.ch/~stamatak
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              The recently-developed statistical method known as the "bootstrap" can be used to place confidence intervals on phylogenies. It involves resampling points from one's own data, with replacement, to create a series of bootstrap samples of the same size as the original data. Each of these is analyzed, and the variation among the resulting estimates taken to indicate the size of the error involved in making estimates from the original data. In the case of phylogenies, it is argued that the proper method of resampling is to keep all of the original species while sampling characters with replacement, under the assumption that the characters have been independently drawn by the systematist and have evolved independently. Majority-rule consensus trees can be used to construct a phylogeny showing all of the inferred monophyletic groups that occurred in a majority of the bootstrap samples. If a group shows up 95% of the time or more, the evidence for it is taken to be statistically significant. Existing computer programs can be used to analyze different bootstrap samples by using weights on the characters, the weight of a character being how many times it was drawn in bootstrap sampling. When all characters are perfectly compatible, as envisioned by Hennig, bootstrap sampling becomes unnecessary; the bootstrap method would show significant evidence for a group if it is defined by three or more characters.

                Author and article information

                Pensoft Publishers
                11 February 2021
                : 1016
                : 1-48
                [1 ] Laboratório de Ecologia e Evolução, Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades (EACH), Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Av. Arlindo Bettio, 1000, São Paulo, SP, 03828-000, Brazil
                [2 ] Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Rua do Matão, Tv. 14, 321, São Paulo, SP, 05508-090, Brazil
                [3 ] Programa de Pós-Graduação em Sistemática, Taxonomia Animal e Biodiversidade, Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Domingo Lago-Barcia ( domingo.lagobarcia@ 123456gmail.com )

                Academic editor: D. Gibson

                Domingo Lago-Barcia, Marcos Santos Silva, Fernando Carbayo

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Funded by: Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico 501100003593 http://doi.org/10.13039/501100003593
                Research Article
                Biodiversity & Conservation
                South America

                Animal science & Zoology

                taxonomy, rolled up, land planarians, geoplaninae , flatworms, coi


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