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      Pasireotide in Acromegaly: An Overview of Current Mechanistic and Clinical Data

      review-article
      *
      Neuroendocrinology
      S. Karger AG
      Pasireotide, Medical therapy, Acromegaly, Somatostatin analog, SOM230, Somatostatin receptor ligand

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          Abstract

          Background: Acromegaly is an insidious neuroendocrine disorder caused by hypersecretion of growth hormone (GH) by a somatotroph adenoma. Somatostatin receptor ligands (SRLs) are recommended as first-line medical therapy in patients for whom surgery has failed or is contraindicated. There are 5 known somatostatin receptor subtypes (SSTRs), 2 of which, i.e. SSTR2 and SSTR5, are expressed by a majority of somatotroph adenomas. The currently available SRLs, i.e. octreotide and lanreotide, primarily bind to SSTR2. Pasireotide (SOM230) is a new multireceptor-targeted SRL which has a broader binding profile and an increased affinity for SSTR1, 2, 3, and 5. Methods: PubMed searches were performed to identify all of the available published English language data on pasireotide with regard to the mechanism of action, in vitro effects, and clinical data. Results: Preclinical studies have demonstrated that pasireotide has a broader range of functional activity than octreotide. Recently, the efficacy of pasireotide in attenuating GH and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels in patients with acromegaly has been evaluated in phase III clinical trials. Pasireotide demonstrated superiority over octreotide in achieving biochemical control (i.e. GH ≤2.5 µg/l and age- and sex-matched IGF-1 normalization) in patients with acromegaly, as well as significant efficacy in treating patients who were previously inadequately controlled on the maximum allowed doses of octreotide and lanreotide. Pasireotide-induced hyperglycemia was the most concerning adverse event but was reversible upon discontinuation of pasireotide. Conclusion: The clinical data support pasireotide as a promising new therapy for the treatment of acromegaly, and the long-acting formulation was recently approved in the US and Europe for the treatment of acromegaly.

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          Most cited references55

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          Medical progress: Acromegaly.

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            Prevalence of pituitary adenomas: a community-based, cross-sectional study in Banbury (Oxfordshire, UK).

            Pituitary adenomas (PAs) are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The optimal delivery of services and the provision of care for patients with PAs require distribution of the resources proportionate to the impact of these conditions on the community. Currently, the resource allocation for PAs in the health care system is lacking a reliable and an up-to-date epidemiological background that would reflect the recent advances in the diagnostic technologies, leading to the earlier recognition of these tumours. To determine the prevalence, the diagnostic delay and the characteristics of patients with PA in a well-defined geographical area of the UK (Banbury, Oxfordshire). Sixteen general practitioner (GP) surgeries covering the area of Banbury and a total population of 89 334 inhabitants were asked to participate in the study (data confirmed on 31 July 2006). Fourteen surgeries with a total of 81,449 inhabitants (91% of the study population) agreed to take part. All cases of PAs were found following an exhaustive computer database search of agreed terms by the staff of each Practice and data on age, gender, presenting manifestations and their duration, imaging features at diagnosis, history of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and family history of PA were collected. A total of 63 patients with PA were identified amongst the study population of 81,149, with a prevalence of 77.6 PA cases/100,000 inhabitants (prolactinomas; PRLoma: 44.4, nonfunctioning PAs: 22.2, acromegaly; ACRO: 8.6, corticotroph adenoma: 1.2 and unknown functional status; UFS: 1.2/100,000 inhabitants). The distribution of each PA subtype was for PRLoma 57%, nonfunctioning PAs 28%, ACRO 11%, corticotroph adenoma 2% and UFS 2%. The median age at diagnosis and the duration of symptoms until diagnosis (in years) were for PRLoma 32.0 and 1.5, nonfunctioning PAs 51.5 and 0.8, ACRO 47 and 4.5 and corticotroph adenoma 57 and 7, respectively. PRLoma was the most frequent PA diagnosed up to the age of 60 years (0-20 years: 75% and 20-60 years: 61% of PAs) and nonfunctioning PA after the age of 60 years (60% of PAs). Nonfunctioning PAs dominated in men (57% of all men with PA) and PRLoma in women (76% of all women with PA). Five patients (7.9%) presented with classical pituitary apoplexy, with a prevalence of 6.2 cases/100,000 inhabitants. Based on a well-defined population in Banbury (Oxfordshire, UK), we have shown that PAs have a fourfold increased prevalence than previously thought; our data confirm that PAs have a higher burden on the Health Care System and optimal resource distribution for both clinical care and research activities aiming to improve the outcome of these patients are needed.
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              A 12-month phase 3 study of pasireotide in Cushing's disease.

              Cushing's disease is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Pasireotide, a potential therapy, has a unique, broad somatostatin-receptor-binding profile, with high binding affinity for somatostatin-receptor subtype 5. In this double-blind, phase 3 study, we randomly assigned 162 adults with Cushing's disease and a urinary free cortisol level of at least 1.5 times the upper limit of the normal range to receive subcutaneous pasireotide at a dose of 600 μg (82 patients) or 900 μg (80 patients) twice daily. Patients with urinary free cortisol not exceeding 2 times the upper limit of the normal range and not exceeding the baseline level at month 3 continued to receive their randomly assigned dose; all others received an additional 300 μg twice daily. The primary end point was a urinary free cortisol level at or below the upper limit of the normal range at month 6 without an increased dose. Open-label treatment continued through month 12. Twelve of the 82 patients in the 600-μg group and 21 of the 80 patients in the 900-μg group met the primary end point. The median urinary free cortisol level decreased by approximately 50% by month 2 and remained stable in both groups. A normal urinary free cortisol level was achieved more frequently in patients with baseline levels not exceeding 5 times the upper limit of the normal range than in patients with higher baseline levels. Serum and salivary cortisol and plasma corticotropin levels decreased, and clinical signs and symptoms of Cushing's disease diminished. Pasireotide was associated with hyperglycemia-related adverse events in 118 of 162 patients; other adverse events were similar to those associated with other somatostatin analogues. Despite declines in cortisol levels, blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels increased soon after treatment initiation and then stabilized; treatment with a glucose-lowering medication was initiated in 74 of 162 patients. The significant decrease in cortisol levels in patients with Cushing's disease who received pasireotide supports its potential use as a targeted treatment for corticotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas. (Funded by Novartis Pharma; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00434148.).
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEN
                Neuroendocrinology
                10.1159/issn.0028-3835
                Neuroendocrinology
                S. Karger AG
                0028-3835
                1423-0194
                2015
                September 2015
                16 March 2015
                : 102
                : 1-2
                : 8-17
                Affiliations
                The Pituitary Center at Baylor St. Luke's Medical Center, Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Tex., USA
                Author notes
                *Susan L. Samson, The Pituitary Center at Baylor St. Luke's Medical Center, Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, ABBR R615, Houston, TX 77030 (USA), E-Mail ssamson@bcm.edu
                Article
                381460 Neuroendocrinology 2015;102:8-17
                10.1159/000381460
                25792118
                7aacff24-15ac-4929-9d67-59d125b9c51b
                © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                History
                : 30 December 2014
                : 04 March 2015
                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, References: 62, Pages: 10
                Categories
                At the Cutting Edge

                Endocrinology & Diabetes,Neurology,Nutrition & Dietetics,Sexual medicine,Internal medicine,Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine
                Medical therapy,Somatostatin receptor ligand,Pasireotide,Somatostatin analog,Acromegaly,SOM230

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