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      Mechanical restriction of intracortical vessel dilation by brain tissue sculpts the hemodynamic response.

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          Abstract

          Understanding the spatial dynamics of dilation in the cerebral vasculature is essential for deciphering the vascular basis of hemodynamic signals in the brain. We used two-photon microscopy to image neural activity and vascular dynamics in the somatosensory cortex of awake behaving mice during voluntary locomotion. Arterial dilations within the histologically-defined forelimb/hindlimb (FL/HL) representation were larger than arterial dilations in the somatosensory cortex immediately outside the FL/HL representation, demonstrating that the vascular response during natural behaviors was spatially localized. Surprisingly, we found that locomotion drove dilations in surface vessels that were nearly three times the amplitude of intracortical vessel dilations. The smaller dilations of the intracortical arterioles were not due to saturation of dilation. Anatomical imaging revealed that, unlike surface vessels, intracortical vessels were tightly enclosed by brain tissue. A mathematical model showed that mechanical restriction by the brain tissue surrounding intracortical vessels could account for the reduced amplitude of intracortical vessel dilation relative to surface vessels. Thus, under normal conditions, the mechanical properties of the brain may play an important role in sculpting the laminar differences of hemodynamic responses.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Neuroimage
          NeuroImage
          Elsevier BV
          1095-9572
          1053-8119
          Jul 15 2015
          : 115
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Center for Neural Engineering, Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA; Neuroscience Graduate Program, Huck Institutes of the Life Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA.
          [2 ] Center for Neural Engineering, Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA.
          [3 ] Center for Neural Engineering, Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA; Neuroscience Graduate Program, Huck Institutes of the Life Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA; Department of Neurosurgery, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA. Electronic address: pjd17@psu.edu.
          Article
          S1053-8119(15)00354-7 NIHMS691151
          10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.04.054
          4470397
          25953632
          7c593fea-f3e2-4f33-9db0-c209b018cf31
          History

          Somatosensory cortex,Tissue mechanics,Two-photon microscopy,Voluntary locomotion

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