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      Sleep deprivation and diet affect human GH gene expression in transgenic mice in vivo


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          Human (h) growth hormone (GH) production studies are largely limited to effects on secretion. How pituitary hGH gene ( hGH-N/GH1) expression is regulated is important in our understanding of the role hGH plays in physiology and disease. Here we assess for the first time the effect of sleep deprivation (SD) and high-fat diet (HFD) on hGH-N expression in vivo using partially humanized 171hGH/CS transgenic (TG) mice, and attempted to elucidate a role for DNA methylation. Activation of hGH-N expression requires interactions between promoter and upstream locus control region (LCR) sequences including pituitary-specific hypersensitive site (HS) I/II. Both SD and diet affect hGH secretion, but the effect of SD on hGH-N expression is unknown. Mice fed a HFD or regular chow diet for 3 days underwent SD (or no SD) for 6 h at Zeitgeber time (ZT) 3. Serum and pituitaries were assessed over 24 h at 6-h intervals beginning at ZT 14. SD and HFD caused significant changes in serum corticosterone and insulin, as well as hGH and circadian clock-related gene RNA levels. No clear association between DNA methylation and the negative effects of SD or diet on hGH RNA levels was observed. However, a correlation with increased methylation at a CpG (cytosine paired with a guanine) in a putative E-box within the hGH LCR HS II was suggested in situ. Methylation at this site also increased BMAL1/CLOCK-related nuclear protein binding in vitro. These observations support an effect of SD on hGH synthesis at the level of gene expression.

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          Time-restricted feeding without reducing caloric intake prevents metabolic diseases in mice fed a high-fat diet.

          While diet-induced obesity has been exclusively attributed to increased caloric intake from fat, animals fed a high-fat diet (HFD) ad libitum (ad lib) eat frequently throughout day and night, disrupting the normal feeding cycle. To test whether obesity and metabolic diseases result from HFD or disruption of metabolic cycles, we subjected mice to either ad lib or time-restricted feeding (tRF) of a HFD for 8 hr per day. Mice under tRF consume equivalent calories from HFD as those with ad lib access yet are protected against obesity, hyperinsulinemia, hepatic steatosis, and inflammation and have improved motor coordination. The tRF regimen improved CREB, mTOR, and AMPK pathway function and oscillations of the circadian clock and their target genes' expression. These changes in catabolic and anabolic pathways altered liver metabolome and improved nutrient utilization and energy expenditure. We demonstrate in mice that tRF regimen is a nonpharmacological strategy against obesity and associated diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Molecular mechanisms and physiological importance of circadian rhythms

            To accommodate daily recurring environmental changes, animals show cyclic variations in behaviour and physiology, which include prominent behavioural states such as sleep-wake cycles but also a host of less conspicuous oscillations in neurological, metabolic, endocrine, cardiovascular and immune functions. Circadian rhythmicity is created endogenously by genetically encoded molecular clocks, whose components cooperate to generate cyclic changes in their own abundance and activity, with a periodicity of about a day. Throughout the body, such molecular clocks convey temporal control to the function of organs and tissues by regulating pertinent downstream programmes. Synchrony between the different circadian oscillators and resonance with the solar day is largely enabled by a neural pacemaker, which is directly responsive to certain environmental cues and able to transmit internal time-of-day representations to the entire body. In this Review, we discuss aspects of the circadian clock in Drosophila melanogaster and mammals, including the components of these molecular oscillators, the function and mechanisms of action of central and peripheral clocks, their synchronization and their relevance to human health.
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              High-fat diet disrupts behavioral and molecular circadian rhythms in mice.

              The circadian clock programs daily rhythms and coordinates multiple behavioral and physiological processes, including activity, sleep, feeding, and fuel homeostasis. Recent studies indicate that genetic alteration in the core molecular clock machinery can have pronounced effects on both peripheral and central metabolic regulatory signals. Many metabolic systems also cycle and may in turn affect function of clock genes and circadian systems. However, little is known about how alterations in energy balance affect the clock. Here we show that a high-fat diet in mice leads to changes in the period of the locomotor activity rhythm and alterations in the expression and cycling of canonical circadian clock genes, nuclear receptors that regulate clock transcription factors, and clock-controlled genes involved in fuel utilization in the hypothalamus, liver, and adipose tissue. These results indicate that consumption of a high-calorie diet alters the function of the mammalian circadian clock.

                Author and article information

                Endocr Connect
                Endocr Connect
                Endocrine Connections
                Bioscientifica Ltd (Bristol )
                December 2020
                13 October 2020
                : 9
                : 12
                : 1135-1147
                [1 ]Department of Physiology & Pathophysiology , Max Rady College of Medicine, Rady Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
                [2 ]Department of Pathology , University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence should be addressed to J S Jarmasz: Jessica.Jarmasz@ 123456umanitoba.ca
                Author information
                © 2020 The authors

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

                : 09 October 2020
                : 13 October 2020

                sleep deprivation,high-fat diet,dna methylation,human growth hormone


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