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      Radiomics of the primary tumour as a tool to improve 18F-FDG-PET sensitivity in detecting nodal metastases in endometrial cancer

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          A radiomic approach was applied in 18F-FDG PET endometrial cancer, to investigate if imaging features computed on the primary tumour could improve sensitivity in nodal metastases detection. One hundred fifteen women with histologically proven endometrial cancer who underwent preoperative 18F-FDG PET/CT were retrospectively considered. SUV, MTV, TLG, geometrical shape, histograms and texture features were computed inside tumour contours. On a first group of 86 patients (DB1), univariate association with LN metastases was computed by Mann-Whitney test and a neural network multivariate model was developed. Univariate and multivariate models were assessed with leave one out on 20 training sessions and on a second group of 29 patients (DB2). A unified framework combining LN metastases visual detection results and radiomic analysis was also assessed.


          Sensitivity and specificity of LN visual detection were 50% and 99% on DB1 and 33% and 95% on DB2, respectively. A unique heterogeneity feature computed on the primary tumour (the zone percentage of the grey level size zone matrix, GLSZM ZP) was able to predict LN metastases better than any other feature or multivariate model (sensitivity and specificity of 75% and 81% on DB1 and of 89% and 80% on DB2). Tumours with LN metastases are in fact generally characterized by a lower GLSZM ZP value, i.e. by the co-presence of high-uptake and low-uptake areas. The combination of visual detection and GLSZM ZP values in a unified framework obtained sensitivity and specificity of 94% and 67% on DB1 and of 89% and 75% on DB2, respectively.


          The computation of imaging features on the primary tumour increases nodal staging detection sensitivity in 18F-FDG PET and can be considered for a better patient stratification for treatment selection. Results need a confirmation on larger cohort studies.

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          Cancer Statistics, 2005

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            Intratumor heterogeneity characterized by textural features on baseline 18F-FDG PET images predicts response to concomitant radiochemotherapy in esophageal cancer.

            (18)F-FDG PET is often used in clinical routine for diagnosis, staging, and response to therapy assessment or prediction. The standardized uptake value (SUV) in the primary or regional area is the most common quantitative measurement derived from PET images used for those purposes. The aim of this study was to propose and evaluate new parameters obtained by textural analysis of baseline PET scans for the prediction of therapy response in esophageal cancer. Forty-one patients with newly diagnosed esophageal cancer treated with combined radiochemotherapy were included in this study. All patients underwent pretreatment whole-body (18)F-FDG PET. Patients were treated with radiotherapy and alkylatinlike agents (5-fluorouracil-cisplatin or 5-fluorouracil-carboplatin). Patients were classified as nonresponders (progressive or stable disease), partial responders, or complete responders according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. Different image-derived indices obtained from the pretreatment PET tumor images were considered. These included usual indices such as maximum SUV, peak SUV, and mean SUV and a total of 38 features (such as entropy, size, and magnitude of local and global heterogeneous and homogeneous tumor regions) extracted from the 5 different textures considered. The capacity of each parameter to classify patients with respect to response to therapy was assessed using the Kruskal-Wallis test (P < 0.05). Specificity and sensitivity (including 95% confidence intervals) for each of the studied parameters were derived using receiver-operating-characteristic curves. Relationships between pairs of voxels, characterizing local tumor metabolic nonuniformities, were able to significantly differentiate all 3 patient groups (P < 0.0006). Regional measures of tumor characteristics, such as size of nonuniform metabolic regions and corresponding intensity nonuniformities within these regions, were also significant factors for prediction of response to therapy (P = 0.0002). Receiver-operating-characteristic curve analysis showed that tumor textural analysis can provide nonresponder, partial-responder, and complete-responder patient identification with higher sensitivity (76%-92%) than any SUV measurement. Textural features of tumor metabolic distribution extracted from baseline (18)F-FDG PET images allow for the best stratification of esophageal carcinoma patients in the context of therapy-response prediction.
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              Efficacy of systematic pelvic lymphadenectomy in endometrial cancer (MRC ASTEC trial): a randomised study

              Summary Background Hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) is the standard surgery for stage I endometrial cancer. Systematic pelvic lymphadenectomy has been used to establish whether there is extra-uterine disease and as a therapeutic procedure; however, randomised trials need to be done to assess therapeutic efficacy. The ASTEC surgical trial investigated whether pelvic lymphadenectomy could improve survival of women with endometrial cancer. Methods From 85 centres in four countries, 1408 women with histologically proven endometrial carcinoma thought preoperatively to be confined to the corpus were randomly allocated by a minimisation method to standard surgery (hysterectomy and BSO, peritoneal washings, and palpation of para-aortic nodes; n=704) or standard surgery plus lymphadenectomy (n=704). The primary outcome measure was overall survival. To control for postsurgical treatment, women with early-stage disease at intermediate or high risk of recurrence were randomised (independent of lymph-node status) into the ASTEC radiotherapy trial. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered, number ISRCTN 16571884. Findings After a median follow-up of 37 months (IQR 24–58), 191 women (88 standard surgery group, 103 lymphadenectomy group) had died, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1·16 (95% CI 0·87–1·54; p=0·31) in favour of standard surgery and an absolute difference in 5-year overall survival of 1% (95% CI −4 to 6). 251 women died or had recurrent disease (107 standard surgery group, 144 lymphadenectomy group), with an HR of 1·35 (1·06–1·73; p=0·017) in favour of standard surgery and an absolute difference in 5-year recurrence-free survival of 6% (1–12). With adjustment for baseline characteristics and pathology details, the HR for overall survival was 1·04 (0·74–1·45; p=0·83) and for recurrence-free survival was 1·25 (0·93–1·66; p=0·14). Interpretation Our results show no evidence of benefit in terms of overall or recurrence-free survival for pelvic lymphadenectomy in women with early endometrial cancer. Pelvic lymphadenectomy cannot be recommended as routine procedure for therapeutic purposes outside of clinical trials. Funding Medical Research Council and National Cancer Research Network.

                Author and article information

                EJNMMI Res
                EJNMMI Res
                EJNMMI Research
                Springer Berlin Heidelberg (Berlin/Heidelberg )
                22 August 2018
                22 August 2018
                : 8
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2174 1754, GRID grid.7563.7, Medicine and Surgery Department, , University of Milano Bicocca, ; via Cadore 48, 20900 Monza, MB Italy
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1756 8604, GRID grid.415025.7, Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, , San Gerardo Hospital, ; via Pergolesi 33, 20900 Monza, MB Italy
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1756 8604, GRID grid.415025.7, Nuclear Medicine Department, , San Gerardo Hospital, ; via Pergolesi 33, 20900 Monza, MB Italy
                [4 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2174 1754, GRID grid.7563.7, Tecnomed Foundation, , University of Milano Bicocca, ; via Pergolesi 33, 20900 Monza, MB Italy
                © The Author(s). 2018

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

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