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      Comparison of response to 2-years’ growth hormone treatment in children with isolated growth hormone deficiency, born small for gestational age, idiopathic short stature, or multiple pituitary hormone deficiency: combined results from two large observational studies


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          Few studies have compared the response to growth hormone (GH) treatment between indications such as isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD), born small for gestational age (SGA), idiopathic short stature (ISS), and multiple pituitary hormone deficiency (MPHD). The aim of this analysis of data, collected from two large ongoing observational outcome studies, was to evaluate growth and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) response data for children of short stature with IGHD, MPHD, SGA, or ISS following two years of treatment with the recombinant GH product Norditropin® (Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsværd, Denmark).


          Analysis of auxologic data from two ongoing prospective observational studies, NordiNet® International Outcomes Study (NordiNet® IOS) and NovoNet®/American Norditropin® Studies: Web-enabled Research (ANSWER) Program®.


          4,582 children aged <18 years were included: IGHD, n = 3,298; SGA, n = 678; ISS, n = 334; and MPHD, n = 272. After two years’ GH treatment, change in height standard deviation score (SDS) was +1.03 in SGA and +0.84 in ISS vs. +0.97 in IGHD ( p = 0.047; p < 0.001 vs. IGHD, respectively). Height gain was comparable between IGHD and MPHD. In pre-pubertal children vs. total population, height SDS change after two years was: IGHD, +1.24 vs. +0.97; SGA, +1.17 vs. +1.03; ISS, +1.04 vs. +0.84; and MPHD, +1.16 vs. +0.99 (all p < 0.001).


          After two years’ GH treatment, change in height SDS was greater in SGA and less in ISS, compared with IGHD; the discrepancy in responses may be due to the disease nature or confounders (i.e. age). Height SDS increase was greatest in pre-pubertal children, supporting early treatment initiation to optimize growth outcomes.

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          Consensus statement on the diagnosis and treatment of children with idiopathic short stature: a summary of the Growth Hormone Research Society, the Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrine Society, and the European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology Workshop.

          Our objective was to summarize important advances in the management of children with idiopathic short stature (ISS). Participants were 32 invited leaders in the field. Evidence was obtained by extensive literature review and from clinical experience. Participants reviewed discussion summaries, voted, and reached a majority decision on each document section. ISS is defined auxologically by a height below -2 sd score (SDS) without findings of disease as evident by a complete evaluation by a pediatric endocrinologist including stimulated GH levels. Magnetic resonance imaging is not necessary in patients with ISS. ISS may be a risk factor for psychosocial problems, but true psychopathology is rare. In the United States and seven other countries, the regulatory authorities approved GH treatment (at doses up to 53 microg/kg.d) for children shorter than -2.25 SDS, whereas in other countries, lower cutoffs are proposed. Aromatase inhibition increases predicted adult height in males with ISS, but adult-height data are not available. Psychological counseling is worthwhile to consider instead of or as an adjunct to hormone treatment. The predicted height may be inaccurate and is not an absolute criterion for GH treatment decisions. The shorter the child, the more consideration should be given to GH. Successful first-year response to GH treatment includes an increase in height SDS of more than 0.3-0.5. The mean increase in adult height in children with ISS attributable to GH therapy (average duration of 4-7 yr) is 3.5-7.5 cm. Responses are highly variable. IGF-I levels may be helpful in assessing compliance and GH sensitivity; levels that are consistently elevated (>2.5 SDS) should prompt consideration of GH dose reduction. GH therapy for children with ISS has a similar safety profile to other GH indications.
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            Adult height after long-term, continuous growth hormone (GH) treatment in short children born small for gestational age: results of a randomized, double-blind, dose-response GH trial.

            The GH dose-response effect of long-term continuous GH treatment on adult height (AH) was evaluated in 54 short children born small for gestational age (SGA) who were participating in a randomized, double-blind, dose-response trial. Patients were randomly and blindly assigned to treatment with either 3 IU (group A) or 6 IU (group B) GH/m(2).d ( approximately 0.033 or 0.067 mg/kg.d, respectively). The mean (+/-SD) birth length was -3.6 (1.4), the age at the start of the study was 8.1 (1.9) yr, and the height SD score (SDS) at the start of the study -3.0 (0.7). Seventeen of the 54 children were partially GH deficient (stimulated GH peak, 10-20 mU/liter). Fifteen non-GH-treated, non-GH-deficient, short children born SGA, with similar inclusion criteria, served as controls [mean (+/-SD) birth length, -3.3 (1.2); age at start, 7.8 (1.7) yr; height SDS at start, -2.6 (0.5)]. GH treatment resulted in an AH above -2 SDS in 85% of the children after a mean (+/-SD) GH treatment period of 7.8 (1.7) yr. The mean (SD) AH SDS was -1.1 (0.7) for group A and -0.9 (0.8) for group B, resulting from a mean (+/-SD) gain in height SDS of 1.8 (0.7) for group A and 2.1 (0.8) for group B. No significant differences between groups A and B were found for AH SDS (mean difference, 0.3 SDS; 95% confidence interval, -0.2, 0.6; P > 0.2) and gain in height SDS (mean difference, 0.3 SDS; 95% confidence interval, -0.1, 0.7; P > 0.1). When corrected for target height, the mean corrected AH SDS was -0.2 (0.8) for group A and -0.4 (0.9) for group B. The mean (+/-SD) AH SDS of the control group [-2.3 (0.7)] was significantly lower than that of the GH-treated group (P < 0.001). Multiple regression analysis indicated the following predictive variables for AH SDS: target height SDS, height SDS, and chronological age minus bone age (years) at the start of the study. GH dose had no significant effect. In conclusion, long-term continuous GH treatment in short children born SGA without signs of persistent catch-up growth leads to a normalization of AH, even with a GH dose of 3 IU/m(2).d ( approximately 0.033 mg/kg.d).
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              Effect of growth hormone (GH) treatment on the near-final height of 1258 patients with idiopathic GH deficiency: analysis of a large international database.

              Treatment with GH has been used to correct the growth deficit in children with GH deficiency (GHD). Although successful in increasing height velocity, such treatment often falls short of helping patients achieve full genetic height potential. This study set out to analyze near-final height (FH) data from a cohort of GH-treated children with idiopathic GHD. Of 1258 evaluable patients in the Pfizer International Growth Database (KIGS) with GHD, 980 were of Caucasian origin, and 278 were of Japanese origin; 747 had isolated GHD (IGHD), and 511 had multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies (MPHD). Near-FH, relation to midparental height, and factors predictive of growth outcomes were the main outcome measures. Median height sd scores (SDS) at the start of treatment were -2.4 (IGHD) and -2.9 (MPHD) for Caucasian males and -2.6 (IGHD) and -3.4 (MPHD) for females, respectively; comparable starting heights were -2.9 (IGHD) and -3.6 (MPHD) for Japanese males and -3.3 (IGHD) and -4.0 (MPHD) for females, respectively. Corresponding near-adult height SDS after GH treatment were -0.8 (IGHD) and -0.7 (MPHD) for Caucasian males and -1.0 (IGHD) and -1.1 (MPHD) for females, respectively; and -1.6 (IGHD) and -1.9 (MPHD) for Japanese males and -2.1 (IGHD) and -1.8 (MPHD) for females, respectively. Differences between near-adult height and midparental height ranged between -0.6 and +0.2 SDS for the various groups, with the closest approximation to MPH occurring in Japanese males with MPHD. The first-year increase in height SDS and prepubertal height gain was highly correlated with total height gain, confirming the importance of treatment before pubertal onset. It is possible to achieve FH within the midparental height range in patients with idiopathic GHD treated from an early age with GH, but absolute height outcomes remain in the lower part of the normal range. Patients with MPHD generally had a slightly better long-term height outcome.

                Author and article information

                Int J Pediatr Endocrinol
                Int J Pediatr Endocrinol
                International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology
                BioMed Central
                12 July 2012
                : 2012
                : 1
                : 22
                [1 ]Penn State College of Medicine, The Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, PO Box 850, Hershey, PA, 17033-0850, USA
                [2 ]Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Department of Women’s and Children´s Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
                [3 ]Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Hôpital des Enfants, Toulouse, France
                [4 ]Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany
                [5 ]Department of Pediatrics, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA
                [6 ]Department of Pediatrics, 2nd Medical School - Charles University and University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic
                [7 ]Novo Nordisk Health Care AG, Zurich, Switzerland
                [8 ]Novo Nordisk A/S, Søborg, Denmark
                [9 ]H.C. Andersen Children’s Hospital, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark
                Copyright ©2012 Lee et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


                norditropin®,isolated growth hormone deficiency,small for gestational age,multiple pituitary hormone deficiency,puberty,idiopathic short stature


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