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      Thyroid Hormones and Cancer: A Comprehensive Review of Preclinical and Clinical Studies

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          Abstract

          Thyroid hormones take major part in normal growth, development and metabolism. Over a century of research has supported a relationship between thyroid hormones and the pathophysiology of various cancer types. In vitro studies as well as research in animal models demonstrated an effect of the thyroid hormones T3 and T4 on cancer proliferation, apoptosis, invasiveness and angiogenesis. Thyroid hormones mediate their effects on the cancer cell through several non-genomic pathways including activation of the plasma membrane receptor integrin αvβ3. Furthermore, cancer development and progression are affected by dysregulation of local bioavailability of thyroid hormones. Case-control and population-based studies provide conflicting results regarding the association between thyroid hormones and cancer. However, a large body of evidence suggests that subclinical and clinical hyperthyroidism increase the risk of several solid malignancies while hypothyroidism may reduce aggressiveness or delay the onset of cancer. Additional support is provided from studies in which dysregulation of the thyroid hormone axis secondary to cancer treatment or thyroid hormone supplementation was shown to affect cancer outcomes. Recent preclinical and clinical studies in various cancer types have further shown promising outcomes following chemical reduction of thyroid hormones or inhibition or their binding to the integrin receptor. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the preclinical and clinical research conducted so far.

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          Most cited references 226

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          Nongenomic actions of thyroid hormone.

          The nongenomic actions of thyroid hormone begin at receptors in the plasma membrane, mitochondria or cytoplasm. These receptors can share structural homologies with nuclear thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) that mediate transcriptional actions of T3, or have no homologies with TR, such as the plasma membrane receptor on integrin αvβ3. Nongenomic actions initiated at the plasma membrane by T4 via integrin αvβ3 can induce gene expression that affects angiogenesis and cell proliferation, therefore, both nongenomic and genomic effects can overlap in the nucleus. In the cytoplasm, a truncated TRα isoform mediates T4-dependent regulation of intracellular microfilament organization, contributing to cell and tissue structure. p30 TRα1 is another shortened TR isoform found at the plasma membrane that binds T3 and mediates nongenomic hormonal effects in bone cells. T3 and 3,5-diiodo-L-thyronine are important to the complex nongenomic regulation of cellular respiration in mitochondria. Thus, nongenomic actions expand the repertoire of cellular events controlled by thyroid hormone and can modulate TR-dependent nuclear events. Here, we review the experimental approaches required to define nongenomic actions of the hormone, enumerate the known nongenomic effects of the hormone and their molecular basis, and discuss the possible physiological or pathophysiological consequences of these actions.
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            Integrin alphaVbeta3 contains a cell surface receptor site for thyroid hormone that is linked to activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and induction of angiogenesis.

            Integrin alpha(V)beta(3) is a heterodimeric plasma membrane protein whose several extracellular matrix protein ligands contain an RGD recognition sequence. This study identifies integrin alpha(V)beta(3) as a cell surface receptor for thyroid hormone [L-T(4) (T(4))] and as the initiation site for T(4)-induced activation of intracellular signaling cascades. Integrin alpha(V)beta(3) dissociably binds radiolabeled T(4) with high affinity, and this binding is displaced by tetraiodothyroacetic acid, alpha(V)beta(3) antibodies, and an integrin RGD recognition site peptide. CV-1 cells lack nuclear thyroid hormone receptor, but express plasma membrane alpha(V)beta(3); treatment of these cells with physiological concentrations of T(4) activates the MAPK pathway, an effect inhibited by tetraiodothyroacetic acid, RGD peptide, and alpha(V)beta(3) antibodies. Inhibitors of T(4) binding to the integrin also block the MAPK-mediated proangiogenic action of T(4). T(4)-induced phosphorylation of MAPK is inhibited by small interfering RNA knockdown of alpha(V) and beta(3). These findings suggest that T(4) binds to alpha(V)beta(3) near the RGD recognition site and show that hormone-binding to alpha(V)beta(3) has physiological consequences.
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              The mammary gland iodide transporter is expressed during lactation and in breast cancer.

              The sodium/iodide symporter mediates active iodide transport in both healthy and cancerous thyroid tissue. By exploiting this activity, radioiodide has been used for decades with considerable success in the detection and treatment of thyroid cancer. Here we show that a specialized form of the sodium/iodide symporter in the mammary gland mediates active iodide transport in healthy lactating (but not in nonlactating) mammary gland and in mammary tumors. In addition to characterizing the hormonal regulation of the mammary gland sodium/iodide symporter, we demonstrate by scintigraphy that mammary adenocarcinomas in transgenic mice bearing Ras or Neu oncogenes actively accumulate iodide by this symporter in vivo. Moreover, more than 80% of the human breast cancer samples we analyzed by immunohistochemistry expressed the symporter, compared with none of the normal (nonlactating) samples from reductive mammoplasties. These results indicate that the mammary gland sodium/iodide symporter may be an essential breast cancer marker and that radioiodide should be studied as a possible option in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Endocrinol (Lausanne)
                Front Endocrinol (Lausanne)
                Front. Endocrinol.
                Frontiers in Endocrinology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-2392
                13 February 2019
                2019
                : 10
                Affiliations
                1Translational Hemato-Oncology Laboratory, Meir Medical Center , Kfar-Saba, Israel
                2Department of Human Molecular Genetics and Biochemistry, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University , Tel Aviv, Israel
                3Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Centre of Postgraduate Medical Education , Warsaw, Poland
                4Meir Medical Center, Hematology Institute and Blood Bank , Kfar-Saba, Israel
                5Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University , Tel Aviv, Israel
                Author notes

                Edited by: Veronica Vella, Università degli Studi di Catania, Italy

                Reviewed by: Elisabetta Ferretti, Sapienza Università di Roma, Italy; Rocco Bruno, ASM Matera, Italy; Alessandro Antonelli, University of Pisa, Italy; Silvia Martina Ferrari, University of Pisa, Italy

                *Correspondence: Osnat Ashur-Fabian osnataf@ 123456gmail.com

                This article was submitted to Cancer Endocrinology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Endocrinology

                †These authors have contributed equally to this work

                Article
                10.3389/fendo.2019.00059
                6381772
                Copyright © 2019 Krashin, Piekiełko-Witkowska, Ellis and Ashur-Fabian.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 243, Pages: 23, Words: 21163
                Categories
                Endocrinology
                Review

                Endocrinology & Diabetes

                cancer, thyroid hormone, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, αvβ3 integrin

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