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Association between esophageal cancer in middle-aged and elderly patients and body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio

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      Abstract

      Objective: This study determined the relationship between esophageal cancer in middle-aged and elderly patients and body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR).

      Methods: A hospital-based case-control study was adopted. Two hundred eighty-two patients who were diagnosed with esophageal cancer through clinical endoscopy, X-ray examination, or histopathologic evaluation, and underwent surgery or received chemotherapy were enrolled as cases. The control group consisted of 282 patients without any cancers or esophageal diseases who were hospitalized during the same period in the same hospital. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using standard survey forms, and the height, weight, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured to calculate the BMI and WHR. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) between the patient BMI and WHR and esophageal cancer were estimated using a multi-factor logistic regression model.

      Results: There was no statistical difference between the case and control groups with respect to age, gender, occupation, educational background, place of residence, and history of high blood pressure (P>0.05); however, there were more cases who smoked cigarettes and consumed alcohol than controls (P<0.05). Single-factor logistic regression analysis showed that the risk for esophageal cancer in overweight and obese patients was 1.53- and 1.82-fold that of normoweight patients, respectively. The risk for esophageal cancer in patients with a WHR in the highest quartile was 1.85-fold the control patients with a WHR in the lowest quartile. After confounding factors, such as gender and age, were adjusted, multi-factor logistic regression analysis indicated that the risk for esophageal cancer in overweight and obese patients increased by 59.4% (OR=1.594) and 78.2% (OR=1.782), respectively, when compared with normoweight patients.

      Conclusion: BMI and WHR are important risk factors for esophageal cancer. Overweight and obese patients are at increased risk for esophageal cancer. Maintaining a normal weight may be a factor in preventing esophageal cancer.

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      Most cited references 18

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      Symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux as a risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma

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        Leptin promotes invasiveness of kidney and colonic epithelial cells via phosphoinositide 3-kinase-, rho-, and rac-dependent signaling pathways

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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            1Postgraduate Training Base, General Hospital of Shenyang Military Command, Liaoning Medical University, Jinzhou, 110016, China
            2Department of Radiotherapy, General Hospital of Shenyang Military Command, Shenyang, 110000, China
            3Teaching and Research Section, Liaoning Medical University, Jinzhou, 110016, China
            Author notes
            CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Ying Yan, Department of Radiotherapy, General Hospital of Shenyang Military Command, Shenyang, 110000, China, E-mail: yanyingdoctor@123456sina.com
            Journal
            FMCH
            Family Medicine and Community Health
            FMCH
            Family Medicine and Community Health & American Chinese Medical Education Association (USA)
            xxx-xxx
            2305-6983
            September 2014
            December 2014
            : 2
            : 3
            : 26-33
            fmch20140127
            10.15212/FMCH.2014.0127
            Copyright © 2014 Family Medicine and Community Health

            This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported License (CC BY-NC 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. See https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.

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            Self URI (journal page): http://fmch-journal.org/
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