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      Preventive Effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus XY27 on DSS-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Mice

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          Abstract

          Introduction

          Lactobacillus acidophilus is widely used as probiotic supplement in functional foods due to its beneficial regulatory effects on host, such as immune regulation, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities.

          Aim

          This study aimed to determine the preventive effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus XY27 ( L. acidophilus XY27) on colitis induced by dextran sodium.

          Methods

          The mice were randomly divided into five groups. Except for the control group, the other four groups were induced for ulcerative colitis (UC) with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS), and three groups in DSS-groups were treated with L. acidophilus XY27, L. bulgaricus, and salicylazosulfapyridine. The weight change, DAI score, colon length, and length to weight ratio were tested. The oxidation index and the levels of inflammatory cytokines in the serum were measured. Subsequently, the gene expression levels of inflammatory factors in the colon tissue were determined by the Real-Time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) method.

          Results

          The results showed that the mice in the L. acidophilus XY27 group performed better in terms of weight, DAI score, colon length, and length to weight ratio or colonic pathological sections compared with the DSS-induced group. Further, the levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Interleukin-12 (IL-12) and Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and myeloperoxidase activity in the serum of UC mice treated with L. acidophilus XY27 significantly decreased, while the levels of Interferon-γ (IFN-γ), Interleukin-10 (IL-10), Catalase (CAT), and total superoxide dismutase (SOD) significantly increased. The gene expression levels of Ets-like transcription factor-1 (EIK-1), IL-12, IL-1β, Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), TNF-α, Escherichia coli, Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and p100 in the colon significantly decreased while those of tight junction protein 1 (ZO-1), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB), p53, and NF-kappa-B inhibitor alpha (IκB-α) increased in the L. acidophilus XY27 group.

          Conclusion

          The results of the experiment suggested that L. acidophilus XY27 prevented colitis and alleviated symptoms in mice with DSS-induced UC, and also repaired the intestinal barrier function.

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          Most cited references 33

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          Gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease.

          Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, is a chronic and relapsing inflammatory disorder of the intestine. Although its incidence is increasing globally, the precise etiology remains unclear and a cure for IBD has yet to be discovered. The most accepted hypothesis of IBD pathogenesis is that complex interactions between genetics, environmental factors, and the host immune system lead to aberrant immune responses and chronic intestinal inflammation. The human gut harbors a complex and abundant aggregation of microbes, collectively referred to as the gut microbiota. The gut microbiota has physiological functions associated with nutrition, the immune system, and defense of the host. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing technology have identified alteration of the composition and function of the gut microbiota, which is referred to as dysbiosis, in IBD. Clinical and experimental data suggest dysbiosis may play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of IBD. This review is focused on the physiological function of the gut microbiota and the association between the gut microbiota and pathogenesis in IBD. In addition, we review the therapeutic options for manipulating the altered gut microbiota, such as probiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation.
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            Probiotic and other functional microbes: from markets to mechanisms.

            Insight into the diversity and function of the human intestinal microbiota has been stimulated by clinical studies with bacteria that exhibit specific functions and which are marketed as probiotics to positively affect our health. Initial efforts concentrated on establishing sound scientific support for the efficacy of these probiotic bacteria, which mainly include Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species. Following these evidence-based functional approaches, considerable research is now focused on the mechanisms of action of probiotic bacteria. The mechanisms identified to date mainly relate to the stimulation of host defence systems, immune modulation and the competitive exclusion of pathogens. Recent efficacy, molecular and genomics-based studies have also been reported for some probiotic strains that have found their position in the market place.
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              Lactobacillus species: taxonomic complexity and controversial susceptibilities.

              The genus Lactobacillus is a taxonomically complex and is composed of over 170 species that cannot be easily differentiated phenotypically and often require molecular identification. Although they are part of the normal human gastrointestinal and vaginal flora, they can also be occasional human pathogens. They are extensively used in a variety of commercial products including probiotics. Their antimicrobial susceptibilities are poorly defined in part because of their taxonomic complexity and are compounded by the different methods recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute and International Dairy Foundation. Their use as probiotics for prevention of Clostridium difficile infection is prevalent among consumers worldwide but raises the question of will the use of any concurrent antibiotic effect their ability to survive. Lactobacillus species are generally acid resistant and are able to survive ingestion. They are generally resistant to metronidazole, aminoglycosides and ciprofloxacin with L. acidophilus being susceptible to penicillin and vancomycin, whereas L. rhamnosus and L. casei are resistant to metronidazole and vancomycin.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                dddt
                dddt
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove
                1177-8881
                22 December 2020
                2020
                : 14
                : 5645-5657
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Chongqing Collaborative Innovation Center for Functional Food, Chongqing University of Education , Chongqing, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Chongqing Engineering Research Center of Functional Food, Chongqing University of Education , Chongqing, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Chongqing Engineering Laboratory for Research and Development of Functional Food, Chongqing University of Education , Chongqing, People’s Republic of China
                [4 ]Department of Paediatrics, Haikou Affiliated Hospital of Central South University Xiangya School of Medicine (Haikou People’s Hospital) , Haikou, Hainan, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Xin Zhao Tel +86-23-6265-3650 Email zhaoxin@cque.edu.cn
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                284422
                10.2147/DDDT.S284422
                7764796
                © 2020 Hu et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 12, References: 33, Pages: 13
                Categories
                Original Research

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