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      Nitrogen Isotope Evidence for Changing Arctic Ocean Ventilation Regimes During the Cenozoic

      1 , 2
      Geophysical Research Letters
      American Geophysical Union (AGU)

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          Trends, rhythms, and aberrations in global climate 65 Ma to present.

          Since 65 million years ago (Ma), Earth's climate has undergone a significant and complex evolution, the finer details of which are now coming to light through investigations of deep-sea sediment cores. This evolution includes gradual trends of warming and cooling driven by tectonic processes on time scales of 10(5) to 10(7) years, rhythmic or periodic cycles driven by orbital processes with 10(4)- to 10(6)-year cyclicity, and rare rapid aberrant shifts and extreme climate transients with durations of 10(3) to 10(5) years. Here, recent progress in defining the evolution of global climate over the Cenozoic Era is reviewed. We focus primarily on the periodic and anomalous components of variability over the early portion of this era, as constrained by the latest generation of deep-sea isotope records. We also consider how this improved perspective has led to the recognition of previously unforeseen mechanisms for altering climate.
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            The Cenozoic palaeoenvironment of the Arctic Ocean.

            The history of the Arctic Ocean during the Cenozoic era (0-65 million years ago) is largely unknown from direct evidence. Here we present a Cenozoic palaeoceanographic record constructed from >400 m of sediment core from a recent drilling expedition to the Lomonosov ridge in the Arctic Ocean. Our record shows a palaeoenvironmental transition from a warm 'greenhouse' world, during the late Palaeocene and early Eocene epochs, to a colder 'icehouse' world influenced by sea ice and icebergs from the middle Eocene epoch to the present. For the most recent approximately 14 Myr, we find sedimentation rates of 1-2 cm per thousand years, in stark contrast to the substantially lower rates proposed in earlier studies; this record of the Neogene reveals cooling of the Arctic that was synchronous with the expansion of Greenland ice (approximately 3.2 Myr ago) and East Antarctic ice (approximately 14 Myr ago). We find evidence for the first occurrence of ice-rafted debris in the middle Eocene epoch (approximately 45 Myr ago), some 35 Myr earlier than previously thought; fresh surface waters were present at approximately 49 Myr ago, before the onset of ice-rafted debris. Also, the temperatures of surface waters during the Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum (approximately 55 Myr ago) appear to have been substantially warmer than previously estimated. The revised timing of the earliest Arctic cooling events coincides with those from Antarctica, supporting arguments for bipolar symmetry in climate change.
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              The relative influences of nitrogen and phosphorus on oceanic primary production

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Geophysical Research Letters
                Geophysical Research Letters
                American Geophysical Union (AGU)
                0094-8276
                1944-8007
                September 16 2022
                September 09 2022
                September 16 2022
                : 49
                : 17
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Geological Survey of Norway Trondheim Norway
                [2 ]CAGE—Centre for Arctic Gas Hydrate, Environment and Climate Department of Geosciences, UiT the Arctic University of Norway Tromsø Norway
                Article
                10.1029/2022GL099512
                81fe76a3-9e37-4f23-8cf2-2c5ec785b664
                © 2022

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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