Abstract. Introduction: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a serious hereditary disease that afflicts the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductor regulator (CFTR) gene responsible for coding the CFTR anion channel. Therefore, CF can alter the secretion of the exocrine glands, including the salivary glands, which renders the possibility of diagnosing CF by analyzing the ionic composition of saliva, such as sodium ion content. Method: A literature search in the Medline database for the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms “cystic fibrosis”, “saliva”, and “inorganic chemicals” yielded 17 articles. Results: Existing data suggests no apparent difference in the concentration of the sodium ion in the parotid or submandibular gland. The sodium ion concentration in whole saliva did show a raised sodium ion concentration in patients with CF. Discussion: Many of the reviewed studies had scant descriptions of the methodology and were subject to much variation. Some studies used troublesome analytical methods. Some of the articles predate the discovery of the CFTR channel, suggesting that salivary chloride might be more relevant. Conclusion: It seems unlikely that sodium concentration in saliva can be utilized to diagnose CF when saliva is obtained from the parotid or submandibular gland. However, employment of sodium-responsive electrodes has shown some potential as a screening tool for CF.