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      Effects of the Timing of Herbivory on Plant Defense Induction and Insect Performance in Ribwort Plantain ( Plantago lanceolata L.) Depend on Plant Mycorrhizal Status

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          Abstract

          Plants often are exposed to antagonistic and symbiotic organisms both aboveground and belowground. Interactions between above- and belowground organisms may occur either simultaneously or sequentially, and jointly can determine plant responses to future enemies. However, little is known about time-dependency of such aboveground-belowground interactions. We examined how the timing of a 24 h period of aboveground herbivory by Spodoptera exigua (1–8 d prior to later arriving conspecifics) influenced the response of Plantago lanceolata and the performance of later arriving conspecifics. We also examined whether these induced responses were modulated by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Funneliformis mosseae. The amount of leaf area consumed by later arriving herbivores decreased with time after induction by early herbivores. Mycorrhizal infection reduced the relative growth rate (RGR) of later arriving herbivores, associated with a reduction in efficiency of conversion of ingested food rather than a reduction in relative consumption rates. In non-mycorrhizal plants, leaf concentrations of the defense compound catalpol showed a linear two-fold increase during the eight days following early herbivory. By contrast, mycorrhizal plants already had elevated levels of leaf catalpol prior to their exposure to early herbivory and did not show any further increase following herbivory. These results indicate that AMF resulted in a systemic induction, rather than priming of these defenses. AMF infection significantly reduced shoot biomass of Plantago lanceolata. We conclude that plant responses to future herbivores are not only influenced by exposure to prior aboveground and belowground organisms, but also by when these prior organisms arrive and interact.

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          Most cited references 55

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          Functioning of mycorrhizal associations along the mutualism-parasitism continuum

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            VARIATION IN PLANT RESPONSE TO NATIVE AND EXOTIC ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI

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              The Consumption and Utilization of Food by Insects

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                +31 (0)317473614 , m.wang@nioo.knaw.nl
                Journal
                J Chem Ecol
                J. Chem. Ecol
                Journal of Chemical Ecology
                Springer US (New York )
                0098-0331
                1573-1561
                9 November 2015
                9 November 2015
                2015
                : 41
                : 11
                : 1006-1017
                Affiliations
                [ ]Department of Terrestrial Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), Droevendaalsesteeg 10, 6708 PB Wageningen, The Netherlands
                [ ]Laboratory of Nematology, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 8132, 6700 ES Wageningen, The Netherlands
                Article
                644
                10.1007/s10886-015-0644-0
                4670619
                26552915
                © The Author(s) 2015

                Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

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                © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

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