When adult male rats were fasted for 24 or 72 h there was no change in the pancreatic content of insulin or glucagon, but the somatostatin content increased at 72 h. This contrasts with earlier reports of reduced pancreatic somatostatin after fasting. After a 4 8-hour fast there was an increase in the concentration of duodenal somatostatin, and a tendency toward reduced concentrations in stomach, jejunum, and ileum. When duodenal mucosa and muscle extracts were chromatographed the relative amounts of putative somatostatin-28 and somatostatin-14 were unchanged. Insulin secretion from the perfused pancreata of 72-hour-fasted rats was markedly reduced, but glucagon and somatostatin secretion was indistinguishable from that of fed controls. These results indicate that in spite of the marked alterations of nutrient metabolism and insulin secretion which occur during fasting, the pancreatic content of insulin, glucagon and somatostatin and the gut concentration of somatostatin are well maintained.