The burgeoning area of plant genetics may hold the key to overcoming some of the most pressing environmental challenges. For example, crops can be genetically improved to make them better able to adapt to climate change, while genetic engineering of crops could help to address food security challenges. As such, a comprehensive understanding of plant genetics may enable humankind to make headway in addressing climate change and resulting challenges. Research in this area is therefore paramount. Research work undertaken in the Plant Transgenic Design Initiative (PTraD) in the Gene Research Center (GRC) within Tsukuba Plant Innovation Research Center (T-PIRC), located at the University of Tsukuba in Japan, is focused on plant sciences and biotechnologies. The PTraD is the centre of excellence in plant biotechnology research in Japan, shedding light on plant genetics and how this can be harnessed to solve environmental challenges such as climate change.