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      An update of the incidence of fulminant hepatitis due to viral agents during pregnancy

      , 1 , *

      Interventional Medicine and Applied Science

      Akadémiai Kiadó

      fulminant hepatic, pregnant women, viral, liver

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          Abstract

          Fulminant hepatitis in pregnant women is one of the major public health issues and remains a challenging clinical problem with extremely high maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality, which, in parallel, viral factors are the most common cause of hepatic disorders and dysfunction during pregnancy that may lead to fulminant hepatic with a fast progression. Therefore, this review helps to inform clinicians about the current status of the incidence of fulminant hepatitis due to viral agents during pregnancy.

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          Most cited references 42

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          Incidence and severity of viral hepatitis in pregnancy.

          A prospective field study was carried out during an epidemic of non-A non-B hepatitis for determining the incidence and severity of hepatitis in pregnant women, nonpregnant women of child bearing age and men (15 to 45 years old). In 36 (17.3 percent) of 208 pregnant women viral hepatitis developed, as compared to 71 (2.1 percent) of 3,350 nonpregnant women and 107 (2.8 percent) of 3,822 men. The incidence of disease in pregnant women was higher than in the two control groups. The incidence of viral hepatitis in the first, second and third trimesters was 8.8 percent, 19.4 percent, and 18.6 percent, respectively. The incidence in all three trimesters was higher, when compared to that in nonpregnant women. In eight pregnant women (22.2 percent) with viral hepatitis, fulminant hepatic failure developed, as compared to its occurrence in three men (2.8 percent) and in no nonpregnant women. This significantly increased incidence of fulminant hepatitis in pregnancy was indicative of a greater severity of hepatitis during pregnancy. Increased susceptibility to fulminant hepatitis was observed exclusively in the last trimester. Nonfulminant viral hepatitis did not influence the course of pregnancy or fetal well-being. Fetal loss in fatal fulminant hepatitis was a consequence of maternal death and could not be ascribed to direct effect on the fetus or pregnancy.
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            Hepatitis E virus infection and fulminant hepatic failure during pregnancy.

            Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection leading to fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) and high mortality is a common feature in Indian women during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. An altered status of hormones and immunity are observed during pregnancy but the actual cause of high mortality is still unknown. The present study was carried out to analyze CD3, CD4 and CD8 T cell counts and to assay the level of pregnancy-related hormones such as estrogen, progesterone and beta-HCG in order to discover the role played by these factors. One hundred patients (50 pregnant and 50 non-pregnant women) with FHF and 150 pregnant healthy females without liver disease as controls were recruited for the study. Serological tests for all viral markers using ELISA kits and detection of HEV RNA by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were carried out in all cases. CD3, CD4 and CD8 T cell counts were analyzed by fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS) while hormone assay was performed by commercially available RIA kits. Serologically (38/50; 76%) as well as by RT-PCR (28/50; 56%), a significantly higher HEV positivity rate was found in pregnant FHF patients compared to non-pregnant women (serologically 15/50; 30%; RT-PCR 7/50; 14%). CD4 counts were lower (P < 0.05), while CD8 counts were higher (P < 0.05), and their ratio (CD4/CD8) in HEV positive pregnant FHF patients was significantly lower (P < 0.01) when compared to that of HEV negative pregnant FHF women or controls. Levels of estrogen, progesterone and beta-HCG were also found to be higher (P < 0.001) in HEV positive pregnant FHF patients when compared to HEV negative patients or controls. HEV infected pregnant FHF patients had a significantly higher mortality rate of 65.8% (25/38) compared to 23.5% (4/15) in HEV positive non-pregnant women (P < 0.001). Pregnancy appears to be a potential risk factor for viral replication and an extreme low immune status of Indian/Asian pregnant women. It is suggested that diminished cellular immunity (indicated by a decrease in CD4, an increase in CD8 cell counts and lowered CD4/CD8 cell ratio) and a high level of steroid hormones that influence viral replication/expression during pregnancy appear to be the plausible reasons for severity of the disease.
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              Hepatitis E: an overview and recent advances in clinical and laboratory research.

              Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a non-enveloped RNA (7.5 kb) virus that is responsible for large epidemics of acute hepatitis and a proportion of sporadic hepatitis cases in southeast and central Asia, the Middle East, parts of Africa and Mexico. Hepatitis E virus infection spreads by the faecal-oral route (usually through contaminated water) and presents after an incubation period of 8-10 weeks with a clinical illness resembling other forms of acute viral hepatitis. Clinical attack rates are the highest among young adults. Asymptomatic and anicteric infections are known to occur. Chronic HEV infection is not observed. Although the mortality rate is usually low (0.07-0.6%), the illness may be particularly severe among pregnant women, with mortality rates reaching as high as 25%. Recent isolation of a swine virus resembling human HEV has opened the possibility of zoonotic HEV infection. Studies of pathogenetic events in humans and experimental animals reveal that viral excretion begins approximately 1 week prior to the onset of illness and persists for nearly 2 weks; viraemia can be detected during the late phase of the incubation period. Immunoglobulin M antibody to HEV (anti-HEV) appears early during clinical illness but disappears rapidly over a few months. Immunoglobulin G anti-HEV appears a few days later and persists for at least a few years. There is no specific treatment available for hepatitis E virus infection. Ensuring a clean drinking water supply remains the best preventive strategy. Recombinant vaccines are being developed that may be particularly useful for travellers to disease-endemic areas and for pregnant women.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                imas
                IMAS
                Interventional Medicine and Applied Science
                IMAS
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                2061-1617
                2061-5094
                26 September 2018
                December 2018
                : 10
                : 4
                : 210-212
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ]Department of Gynecology, Khanevadeh Hospital, AJA University of Medical Sciences , Tehran, Iran
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: Mehri Seifoleslami; Department of Gynecology, Khanevadeh Hospital, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 1434893868, Iran; Phone: +98 91 2154 0069; Fax: +98 91 7750 9348; E-mail: mehri_seifoleslami@ 123456yahoo.com.sg
                Article
                10.1556/1646.10.2018.40
                6376349
                © 2018 The Author(s)

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited, a link to the CC License is provided, and changes – if any – are indicated.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 38, Pages: 3
                Funding
                Funding sources: None.
                Categories
                REVIEW

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