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      Viruses causing gastroenteritis


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          Acute gastroenteritis is one of the most common diseases in humans worldwide. Viruses are recognized as important causes of this disease, particularly in children. Since the Norwalk virus was identified as a cause of gastroenteritis, the number of viral agents associated with diarrheal disease in humans has steadily increased. Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhea in children under 5 years of age. Astrovirus, calicivirus and enteric adenovirus are also important etiologic agents of acute gastroenteritis. Other viruses, such as toroviruses, coronaviruses, picobirnaviruses and pestiviruses, are increasingly being identified as causative agents of diarrhea. In recent years, the availability of diagnostic tests, mainly immunoassays or molecular biology techniques, has increased our understanding of this group of viruses. The future development of a safe and highly effective vaccine against rotavirus could prevent, at least, cases of severe diarrhea and reduce mortality from this disease.

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          Identification of group A rotavirus gene 4 types by polymerase chain reaction.

          Five genetically distinct human rotavirus (HRV) gene 4 groups have been described on the basis of comparative nucleotide sequencing and the predicted amino acid sequences, and at least four of them represent distinct VP4 antigenic types. To identify each gene 4 type and investigate its distribution in HRV isolates from patients with diarrhea, we developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) typing method using sequence information available for four genetically distinct gene 4 types. Rotavirus double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) isolated from stool samples were first reverse transcribed and amplified by PCR by using two oligonucleotide primers that correspond to regions that are highly conserved among all known HRV gene 4 types. The 876-bp dsDNA products were then reamplified by PCR in the presence of a cocktail containing one conserved plus-sense primer and four type-specific minus-sense primers (selected from the hypervariable region of gene 4), resulting in products of 345, 483, 267, and 391 bp corresponding to gene 4 types 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. This method reliably identified the gene 4 types of 16 well-characterized HRV isolates. Our results were independently confirmed for all 16 strains by reverse transcription and PCR amplification of HRV dsRNA in the presence of alternate type-specific primer pairs. For direct gene 4 typing of HRV in stool samples, we developed a method to extract rotavirus dsRNA from stool specimens by using glass powder. Our results suggest that gene 4 typing will be useful in providing more a complete characterization of HRV strains of epidemiologic or vaccine-related interest.
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            Rotavirus infections in infants as protection against subsequent infections.

            Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea in infants. To provide a base line for assessing the efficacy of rotavirus vaccines, we evaluated the protection that is conferred by natural rotavirus infection. We monitored 200 Mexican infants from birth to two years of age by weekly home visits and stool collections. A physician assessed the severity of any episodes of diarrhea and collected additional stool specimens for testing by enzyme immunoassay and typing of strains. Serum collected during the first week of life and every four months thereafter was tested for antirotavirus IgA and IgG. A total of 316 rotavirus infections were detected on the basis of the fecal excretion of virus (56 percent) or a serologic response (77 percent), of which 52 percent were first and 48 percent repeated infections. Children with one, two, or three previous infections had progressively lower risks of both subsequent rotavirus infection (adjusted relative risk, 0.62, 0.40, and 0.34, respectively) and diarrhea (adjusted relative risk, 0.23, 0.17, and 0.08) than children who had no previous infections. No child had moderate-to-severe diarrhea after two infections, whether symptomatic or asymptomatic. Subsequent infections were significantly less severe than first infections (P=0.024), and second infections were more likely to be caused by another G type (P=0.054). In infants, natural rotavirus infection confers protection against subsequent infection. This protection increases with each new infection and reduces the severity of the diarrhea.
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              Rotavirus disease in Finnish children: use of numerical scores for clinical severity of diarrhoeal episodes.

              65 episodes of rotavirus diarrhoea, detected during a longitudinal follow-up of 336 infants from birth to 24-32 months of age, were analyzed for clinical symptoms. Rotavirus gastroenteritis was characterized by watery diarrhoea, vomiting (particularly in older children), fever and dehydration. A 0-20 point numerical score was devised according to the distribution of clinical features in the patients. Using this system, the mean severity score for the 65 episodes of rotavirus diarrhoea was 11.0 +/- 3.7 as compared to 5.6 +/- 3.2 for the 183 episodes of non-rotavirus diarrhoea in the same population (p less than 0.0001, t-test). The 20 point score is proposed for analysis of efficacy studies of candidate rotavirus vaccines.

                Author and article information

                Clin Microbiol Infect
                Clin. Microbiol. Infect
                Clinical Microbiology and Infection
                European Society of Clinical Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
                12 December 2014
                April 2003
                12 December 2014
                : 9
                : 4
                : 247-262
                [a ]Servicio de Microbiología
                [b ]Servicio de Pediatría, Hospital Severo Ochoa
                [c ]Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Institute de Salud Carlos III, Sección de Virus Productores de Gastroenteritis, Madrid, Spain
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author and reprint requests: I. Wilhelmi de Cal, Servicio de Microbiología, Hospital Severo Ochoa, Leganés, 28911 Madrid, Spain Tel: +34 91 4818441 Fax: +34 91 4818442 iwilhelmi@ 123456hsvo.insalud.es
                Copyright © 2003 European Society of Clinical Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

                Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.

                : 12 June 2002

                Microbiology & Virology
                viral gastroenteritis,acute diarrhea,rotaviruses,enteric adenoviruses,astroviruses,human caliciviruses,coronaviruses,toroviruses,picobirnaviruses


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