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      Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management (submit here)

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      Does whey protein supplementation affect blood pressure in hypoalbuminemic peritoneal dialysis patients?


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          Hypertension and hypoalbuminemia are common risk factors for cardiovascular complications in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Data are limited regarding the effects of whey protein consumption on blood pressure in this population. The aim of the present study was to examine if whey protein supplementation for 12 weeks to hypoalbuminemic PD patients affects their blood pressure.

          Patients and methods

          This prospective randomized study included 36 stable PD patients with serum albumin levels <3.8 g/dL. During 12 weeks, 18 patients were instructed to consume 1.2 g/kg/day of protein and an additional whey protein supplement at a dose of 25% of the instructed daily protein (whey protein group). Eighteen patients were instructed to consume protein in the amount of 1.2 g/kg/day and an additional 25%, without whey protein supplementation (control group).


          Compared to the control group, in the whey protein group, serum albumin levels, oncotic pressure, and dialysate ultrafiltration significantly increased (3.55±0.14 to 4.08±0.15 g/dL, P<0.001; 21.81±2.03 to 24.06±1.54 mmHg, P<0.001; 927.8±120.3 to 1,125.0±125.1 mL/day, P<0.001; respectively) and were significantly higher after 12 weeks (4.08±0.15 vs 3.41±0.49 g/dL, P<0.001; 24.06±1.54 vs 22.71±1.77 mmHg, P=0.010; 1,125.0±125.1 vs 930.6±352.8 mL/day, P=0.017; respectively) in the whey protein group compared to the control group. Fluid overload, the extracellular to intracellular ratio and mean arterial pressure (MAP) significantly decreased (2.46±1.08 to 1.52±0.33, P<0.001; 1.080±0.142 to 0.954±0.124, P<0.001; 102.6±3.80 to 99.83±3.85, P=0.018; respectively) and were significantly lower in the whey protein group after 12 weeks (1.52±0.33 vs 2.23±0.73, P<0.001, 0.954±0.124 vs 1.048±0.111, P=0.002; 99.83±3.85 vs 102.8±3.93, P=0.018; respectively).


          Whey protein supplementation for 12 weeks decreased MAP in hypoalbuminemic PD patients.

          Most cited references46

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          Clinical practice guidelines for nutrition in chronic renal failure. K/DOQI, National Kidney Foundation.

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            A fermented milk high in bioactive peptides has a blood pressure-lowering effect in hypertensive subjects.

            Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE; EC plays a dual role in the regulation of hypertension: it catalyzes the production of the vasoconstrictor angiotensin II and it inactivates the vasodilator bradykinin. By inhibiting these processes, ACE inhibitors have antihypertensive effects. Peptides derived from milk proteins can have ACE-inhibiting properties and may thus be used as antihypertensive components. We evaluated the long-term blood pressure-lowering effect of milk fermented by Lactobacillus helveticus LBK-16H in hypertensive subjects. In a randomized placebo-controlled study, 39 hypertensive patients received 150 mL/d of either L. helveticus LBK-16H fermented milk or a control product for 21 wk after a 2-wk run-in period. During the run-in period, the average baseline diastolic and systolic blood pressure values were 155 and 97 mm Hg, respectively, in the test product group and 152 and 96 mm Hg, respectively, in the control group. After the run-in period, blood pressure was measured at home on the same day every week with the use of an automatic blood pressure recorder. There was a mean difference of 6.7 +/- 3.0 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure (P = 0.030) and of 3.6 +/- 1.9 mm Hg (P = 0.059) in diastolic blood pressure between the test product and control groups. Demographic factors had no significant effect on the responses. L. helveticus LBK-16H fermented milk containing bioactive peptides in normal daily use has a blood pressure-lowering effect in hypertensive subjects.
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              Serum albumin as a predictor of mortality in peritoneal dialysis: comparisons with hemodialysis.

              Serum albumin level predicts mortality in dialysis patients and is used to assess their health status and the quality of delivered care. Whether the threshold level of serum albumin at which mortality risk increases in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients is the same as for hemodialysis (HD) patients has not been studied. Observational cohort study of dialysis patients undertaken to determine the survival-predictability of serum albumin level in PD patients and compare it with that in HD patients. 130,052 dialysis patients (PD, 12,171; HD, 117,851) who received treatment in any of the 580 dialysis units owned by DaVita Inc between July 1, 2001, through June 30, 2006, followed up through June 30, 2007. Baseline and time-averaged serum albumin level (assayed using bromcresol green) and change in serum albumin level over 6 months. All-cause, cardiovascular, and infection-related mortality. PD patients with baseline serum albumin level <3.0 g/dL had a more than 3-fold higher adjusted risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and 3.4-fold higher risk of infection-related mortality (reference group: serum albumin, 4.00-4.19 g/dL). Adjusted all-cause mortality was significantly lower in PD patients with a ≥0.3-g/dL increase in serum albumin level over 6 months and significantly higher in those for whom it decreased by ≥0.2 g/dL (reference group: serum albumin change, +0.1 to -0.1 g/dL). A significant increase in death risk was evident for HD patients with serum albumin level <4.0 g/dL, but at <3.8 g/dL for PD patients. For each albumin category, overall death risk for PD patients was lower than for HD patients (reference group: HD patients with serum albumin of 4.00-4.19 g/dL). Study can identify associations only without attribution of causality and residual confounding cannot be excluded. Serum albumin predicts all-cause, cardiovascular, and infection-related mortality in both PD and HD patients. However, the threshold at which risk of death increases varies by dialysis modality, and this difference should be considered by agencies or organizations that set quality standards. Copyright © 2011 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                14 August 2017
                : 13
                : 989-997
                [1 ]Faculty of Medicine in the Galilee, Bar-Ilan University, Safed
                [2 ]Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, Peritoneal Dialysis Unit
                [3 ]Department of Internal Medicine E, Galilee Medical Center, Nahariya, Israel
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Kamal Hassan, Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, Peritoneal Dialysis Unit, Galilee Medical Center – Nahariya, POB 21, Nahariya 22100, Israel, Tel +972 5 788 7913, Fax +972 4 910 7482, Email kamalh@ 123456gmc.gov.il
                © 2017 Hassan and Hassan. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research

                blood pressure,hydration status,oncotic pressure,peritoneal dialysis,whey protein
                blood pressure, hydration status, oncotic pressure, peritoneal dialysis, whey protein


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