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      Fluid shear stress regulates HepG2 cell migration though time-dependent integrin signaling cascade

      1 , 1 , 1 , 1 , 1 , 1

      Cell Adhesion & Migration

      Informa UK Limited

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          Abstract

          Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a subtype of malignant liver cancer with poor prognosis and limited treatment options. It is noteworthy that mechanical forces in tumor microenvironment play a pivotal role in mediating the behaviors and functions of tumor cells. As an instrumental type of mechanical forces in vivo, fluid shear stress (FSS) has been reported having potent physiologic and pathologic effects on cancer progression. However, the time-dependent mechanochemical transduction in HCC induced by FSS remains unclear. In this study, hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells were exposed to 1.4 dyn/cm2 FSS for transient duration (15s and 30s), short duration (5 min, 15 min and 30 min) and long duration (1h, 2h and 4h), respectively. The expression and translocation of Integrins induced FAK-Rho GTPases signaling events were examined. Our results showed that FSS endowed HepG2 cells with higher migration ability via reorganizing cellular F-actin and disrupting intercellular tight junctions. We further demonstrated that FSS regulated the expression and translocation of Integrins and their downstream signaling cascade in time-dependent patterns. The FSS downregulated focal adhesion components (Paxillin, Vinculin and Talin) while upregulated the expression of Rho GTPases (Cdc42, Rac1 and RhoA) in long durations. These results indicated that FSS enhanced tumor cell migration through Integrins-FAK-Rho GTPases signaling pathway in time-dependent manners. Our in vitro findings shed new light on the role of FSS acting in physiologic and pathological processes during tumor progression, which has emerged as a promising clinical strategy for liver carcinoma.

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          Most cited references 21

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          Integrins Versatility modulation and signaling in cell adhesion

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            Integrins: emerging paradigms of signal transduction.

            Integrins receive signals from other receptors that lead to activation of ligand binding (inside-out signaling) and matrix assembly. Upon binding ligands, they also activate intracellular signaling pathways. These signals converse with pathways that are initiated by soluble ligands to regulate cell functions. In this way, cell adhesion is coordinated with other events to orchestrate complex cellular behavior.
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              Role of integrins in endothelial mechanosensing of shear stress.

              The focal pattern of atherosclerotic lesions in arterial vessels suggests that local blood flow patterns are important factors in atherosclerosis. Although disturbed flows in the branches and curved regions are proatherogenic, laminar flows in the straight parts are atheroprotective. Results from in vitro studies on cultured vascular endothelial cells with the use of flow channels suggest that integrins and the associated RhoA small GTPase play important roles in the mechanotransduction mechanism by which shear stress is converted to cascades of molecular signaling to modulate gene expression. By interacting dynamically with extracellular matrix proteins, the mechanosensitive integrins activate RhoA and many signaling molecules in the focal adhesions and cytoplasm. Through such mechanotransduction mechanisms, laminar shear stress upregulates genes involved in antiapoptosis, cell cycle arrest, morphological remodeling, and NO production, thus contributing to the atheroprotective effects. This review summarizes some of the recent findings relevant to these mechanotransduction mechanisms. These studies show that integrins play an important role in mechanosensing in addition to their involvement in cell attachment and migration.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cell Adhesion & Migration
                Cell Adhesion & Migration
                Informa UK Limited
                1933-6918
                1933-6926
                June 29 2017
                January 02 2018
                June 22 2017
                January 02 2018
                : 12
                : 1
                : 56-68
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Institute of Biomedical Engineering, School of Preclinical and Forensic Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China
                Article
                10.1080/19336918.2017.1319042
                5810774
                28636424
                © 2018

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