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      Non-Saccharomyces Commercial Starter Cultures: Scientific Trends, Recent Patents and Innovation in the Wine Sector

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          Abstract

          :

          For 15 years, non-Saccharomyces starter cultures represent a new interesting segment in the dynamic field of multinationals and national companies that develop and sell microbial-based biotechnological solutions for the wine sector. Although the diversity and the properties of non- Saccharomyces species/strains have been recently fully reviewed, less attention has been deserved to the commercial starter cultures in term of scientific findings, patents, and their innovative applications.

          :

          Considering the potential reservoir of biotechnological innovation, these issues represent an underestimated possible driver of coordination and harmonization of research and development activities in the field of wine microbiology. After a wide survey, we encompassed 26 different commercial yeasts starter cultures formulated in combination with at least one non-Saccharomyces strain. The most recent scientific advances have been explored delving into the oenological significance of these commercial starter cultures. Finally, we propose an examination of patent literature for the main yeasts species commercialised in non-Saccharomyces based products.

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          We highlight the presence of asymmetries among scientific findings and the number of patents concerning non-Saccharomyces-based commercial products for oenological purposes. Further investigations on these microbial resources might open new perspectives and stimulate attractive innovations in the field of wine-making biotechnologies.

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          Not your ordinary yeast: non-Saccharomyces yeasts in wine production uncovered.

          Saccharomyces cerevisiae and grape juice are 'natural companions' and make a happy wine marriage. However, this relationship can be enriched by allowing 'wild' non-Saccharomyces yeast to participate in a sequential manner in the early phases of grape must fermentation. However, such a triangular relationship is complex and can only be taken to 'the next level' if there are no spoilage yeast present and if the 'wine yeast' - S. cerevisiae - is able to exert its dominance in time to successfully complete the alcoholic fermentation. Winemakers apply various 'matchmaking' strategies (e.g. cellar hygiene, pH, SO2 , temperature and nutrient management) to keep 'spoilers' (e.g. Dekkera bruxellensis) at bay, and allow 'compatible' wild yeast (e.g. Torulaspora delbrueckii, Pichia kluyveri, Lachancea thermotolerans and Candida/Metschnikowia pulcherrima) to harmonize with potent S. cerevisiae wine yeast and bring the best out in wine. Mismatching can lead to a 'two is company, three is a crowd' scenario. More than 40 of the 1500 known yeast species have been isolated from grape must. In this article, we review the specific flavour-active characteristics of those non-Saccharomyces species that might play a positive role in both spontaneous and inoculated wine ferments. We seek to present 'single-species' and 'multi-species' ferments in a new light and a new context, and we raise important questions about the direction of mixed-fermentation research to address market trends regarding so-called 'natural' wines. This review also highlights that, despite the fact that most frontier research and technological developments are often focussed primarily on S. cerevisiae, non-Saccharomyces research can benefit from the techniques and knowledge developed by research on the former. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Selected non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts in controlled multistarter fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

            Non-Saccharomyces yeasts are metabolically active during spontaneous and inoculated must fermentations, and by producing a plethora of by-products, they can contribute to the definition of the wine aroma. Thus, use of Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts as mixed starter cultures for inoculation of wine fermentations is of increasing interest for quality enhancement and improved complexity of wines. We initially characterized 34 non-Saccharomyces yeasts of the genera Candida, Lachancea (Kluyveromyces), Metschnikowia and Torulaspora, and evaluated their enological potential. This confirmed that non-Saccharomyces yeasts from wine-related environments represent a rich sink of unexplored biodiversity for the winemaking industry. From these, we selected four non-Saccharomyces yeasts to combine with starter cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in mixed fermentation trials. The kinetics of growth and fermentation, and the analytical profiles of the wines produced indicate that these non-Saccharomyces strains can be used with S. cerevisiae starter cultures to increase polysaccharide, glycerol and volatile compound production, to reduce volatile acidity, and to increase or reduce the total acidity of the final wines, depending on yeast species and inoculum ratio used. The overall effects of the non-Saccharomyces yeasts on fermentation and wine quality were strictly dependent on the Saccharomyces/non-Saccharomyces inoculum ratio that mimicked the differences of fermentation conditions (natural or simultaneous inoculated fermentation). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Controlled mixed culture fermentation: a new perspective on the use of non-Saccharomyces yeasts in winemaking.

              Mixed fermentations using controlled inoculation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae starter cultures and non-Saccharomyces yeasts represent a feasible way towards improving the complexity and enhancing the particular and specific characteristics of wines. The profusion of selected starter cultures has allowed the more widespread use of inoculated fermentations, with consequent improvements to the control of the fermentation process, and the use of new biotechnological processes in winemaking. Over the last few years, as a consequence of the re-evaluation of the role of non-Saccharomyces yeasts in winemaking, there have been several studies that have evaluated the use of controlled mixed fermentations using Saccharomyces and different non-Saccharomyces yeast species from the wine environment. The combined use of different species often results in unpredictable compounds and/or different levels of fermentation products being produced, which can affect both the chemical and the aromatic composition of wines. Moreover, possible synergistic interactions between different yeasts might provide a tool for the implementation of new fermentation technologies. Thus, knowledge of the Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces wine yeast interactions during wine fermentation needs to be improved. To reach this goal, further investigations into the genetic and physiological background of such non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts are needed, so as to apply '-omics' approaches to mixed culture fermentations.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Recent Patents on Food, Nutrition & Agriculture
                FNA
                Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.
                22127984
                April 29 2020
                April 29 2020
                : 11
                : 1
                : 27-39
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of the Sciences of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Foggia, via Napoli 25, 71122 Foggia, Italy
                [2 ]Unite de Recherche OEnologie EA 4577, USC 1366 INRA, ENSCBP Bordeaux INP, Universite de Bordeaux, ISVV, 33140, Villenave d'Ornon, France
                Article
                10.2174/2212798410666190131103713
                © 2020
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