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      The Impact of Different Winter Cover Crops on Weed Suppression and Corn Yield under Different Tillage Systems

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      Agronomy
      MDPI AG

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          Abstract

          White clover (Trifolium repens L.) and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) are widely used cover crops. This experiment investigated the potential of white clover (WC), ryegrass (RG), and fallow (FL) to inhibit the growth of weeds and the effect of their residue return to the field on subsequent crops in a cover crop-corn rotation system. Furthermore, we designed pot experiments to guide the scientific application of WC and RG. The results showed that the FL treatment had the highest mean weed biomass in two years (11.99 t ha−1) and the RG treatment recorded the lowest mean weed biomass in two years (2.04 t ha−1) as its early growth rate and aerial root cover. The combination of rotary tillage (RT) and WC recorded the highest total corn yield in two years (20.20 t ha−1) and an increase of 2.84% in the two-year average biomass of weeds compared to RT-FL. Compared to RT-FL, RT-RG treatments inhibited weed invasion by an average of 73%, but corn yield was reduced by 3.25%. Straw and soil ratios above 6:100 for RG resulted in stunted corn growth, including a reduction in fresh weight and chlorophyll content, and impaired photosynthesis, but this effect was not evident in WC treatment. From an ecological point of view, this study recommends RT-RG as a pre-crop for corn to reduce herbicide use.

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          Role of benzoxazinones in allelopathy by rye (Secale cereale L.).

          Two phytotoxic compounds [2,4-dihydroxy-1,4(2H)-benzoxazin-3-one (DIBOA) and 2(3H)-benzoxazolinone (BOA)] were previously isolated and identified in 35-day-old greenhouse-grown rye shoot tissue. Both compounds were also detected by TLC in greenhouse-grown root and fieldgrown shoot tissue. The concentration of DIBOA varied in the tissues, with the greatest quantity detected in greenhouse-grown shoots. DIBOA and BOA were compared with β-phenyllactic acid (PLA) and β-hydroxybutyric acid (HBA) for activity on seed germination and seedling growth and were consistently more toxic than either compound. Dicot species tested, including lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), and redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.), were 30% more sensitive than the monocots tested. Of the two benzoxazinone compounds, DIBOA was most toxic to seedling growth. DIBOA and BOA reduced chlorophyll production inChlamydomonas rheinhardtii Dangeard, by 50% at 7.5 × 10(-5) M and 1.0 × 10(-3) M, respectively. Both DIBOA and BOA inhibited emergence of barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crusgalli L. Beauv.), cress (Lepidium sativum L.), and lettuce when applied to soil, indicating their potential for allelopathic activity.
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            The combined effects of maize straw mulch and no-tillage on grain yield and water and nitrogen use efficiency of dry-land winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

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              CHANGES OVER TIME IN THE ALLELOCHEMICAL CONTENT OF TEN CULTIVARS OF RYE (Secale cereale L.)

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                ABSGGL
                Agronomy
                Agronomy
                MDPI AG
                2073-4395
                May 2022
                April 21 2022
                : 12
                : 5
                : 999
                Article
                10.3390/agronomy12050999
                8a33c38f-b453-4204-bc22-e8f680f13aaf
                © 2022

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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