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      Sawflies (Hymenoptera: Argidae, Pergidae, Tenthredinidae) from southern Ecuador, with a new record for the country and some ecological data

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      Journal of Hymenoptera Research

      Pensoft Publishers

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          World Catalog of Symphyta (Hymenoptera)

          The first complete World Catalog of sawflies (Hymenoptera, suborder Symphyta) for over 100 years is presented. It contains references to the original descriptions and provides brief distributional data for 803 genera, 8353 species (123 with two or more subspecies) and 161 subspecies in addition to the nominal subspecies. 15245 proposed names are treated, including replacement names, infrasubspecific names and nomina nuda, of which only 22 could not be checked in the original publications. Current taxonomic placement of genera and species and occurrence in zoogeographic regions are indicated. The list of names contains 31245 name combinations, variant spellings and family-group names. The authors attempted to consult all publications with taxonomic content referring to Symphyta that have appeared up to 31.12.2009. The 2960 cited references include all those that are known to contain original descriptions of taxa. Short biographical data and portraits of 168 symphytologists as well as images of representatives of extant sawfly taxa are included.
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            Young clades in an old family: major evolutionary transitions and diversification of the eucalypt-feeding pergid sawflies in Australia (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Pergidae).

            A calibrated phylogeny of the family Pergidae indicates that the major lineages within the family evolved during the fragmentation of the Gondwanan supercontinent. The split between the Pergidae and its sister group Argidae is estimated at about 153 Myr ago. No central dichotomous division between Australian and South American pergid sawflies was observed, showing that the major lineages within this group had already evolved by the time Australia had become completely isolated from Antarctica. The molecular dating analysis strongly indicates a co-radiation of Australian pergid sawflies with their Myrtaceae hosts and suggest that the two eucalypt-feeding clades, pergines and pterygophorines, colonised their eucalypt host plants independently during the Palaeocene, at the time when their hosts appear to have started radiating. The present analysis includes representatives of 13 of the 14 currently recognised subfamilies of Pergidae, almost all of which are supported by the molecular data presented here. Exceptions include the Euryinae (paraphyletic in respect to Perreyiinae), Acordulecerinae (paraphyletic to the Perginae), and the Australian Phylacteophaginae (placed within the Neotropical Acordulecerinae). The break-up of Gondwana and the timing of the subsequent climatic change in Australia, leading from vegetation adapted to a seasonal-wet conditions to the arid-adapted sclerophyll vegetation typical of Australia, suggest that the species-poor subfamilies occurring in rainforests represent remnants of more diverse groups that were decimated through loss of habitat or host species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Toxic Peptides Occur Frequently in Pergid and Argid Sawfly Larvae

              Toxic peptides containing D-amino acids are reported from the larvae of sawfly species. The compounds are suspected to constitute environmental contaminants, as they have killed livestock grazing in areas with congregations of such larvae, and related larval extracts are deleterious to ants. Previously, two octapeptides (both called lophyrotomin) and three heptapeptides (pergidin, 4-valinepergidin and dephosphorylated pergidin) were identified from three species in the family Pergidae and one in Argidae. Here, the hypothesis of widespread occurrence of these peptides among sawflies was tested by LC-MS analyses of single larvae from eight pergid and 28 argid species, plus nine outgroup species. At least two of the five peptides were detected in most sawfly species, whereas none in any outgroup taxon. Wherever peptides were detected, they were present in each examined specimen of the respective species. Some species show high peptide concentrations, reaching up to 0.6% fresh weight of 4-valinepergidin (1.75 mg/larva) in the pergid Pterygophorus nr turneri. All analyzed pergids in the subfamily Pterygophorinae contained pergidin and 4-valinepergidin, all argids in Arginae contained pergidin and one of the two lophyrotomins, whereas none of the peptides was detected in any Perginae pergid or Sterictiphorinae argid (except in Schizocerella pilicornis, which contained pergidin). Three of the four sawfly species that were previously known to contain toxins were reanalyzed here, resulting in several, often strong, quantitative and qualitative differences in the chemical profiles. The most probable ecological role of the peptides is defense against natural enemies; the poisoning of livestock is an epiphenomenon.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Hymenoptera Research
                JHR
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-2607
                1070-9428
                August 29 2016
                August 29 2016
                : 51
                : 55-89
                Article
                10.3897/jhr.51.9830
                © 2016
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