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      Cancer immunotherapy: moving beyond current vaccines.

      Nature medicine

      Adolescent, Adult, Aged, Cancer Vaccines, therapeutic use, Child, Clinical Trials as Topic, Female, Humans, Immunotherapy, methods, Male, Middle Aged, Models, Immunological, Neoplasm Metastasis, immunology, therapy, Neoplasms, T-Lymphocytes, Treatment Outcome, Vaccines, Subunit

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          Abstract

          Great progress has been made in the field of tumor immunology in the past decade, but optimism about the clinical application of currently available cancer vaccine approaches is based more on surrogate endpoints than on clinical tumor regression. In our cancer vaccine trials of 440 patients, the objective response rate was low (2.6%), and comparable to the results obtained by others. We consider here results in cancer vaccine trials and highlight alternate strategies that mediate cancer regression in preclinical and clinical models.

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          Journal
          15340416
          1435696
          10.1038/nm1100

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