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      Nanoemulsions in drug delivery: formulation to medical application

      1 , 2 , 1
      Nanomedicine
      Future Medicine Ltd

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          Abstract

          Nanoscale oil-in-water emulsions (NEs), heterogeneous systems of two immiscible liquids stabilized by emulsifiers or surfactants, show great potential in medical applications because of their attractive characteristics for drug delivery. NEs have been explored as therapeutic carriers for hydrophobic compounds via various routes of administration. NEs provide opportunities to improve drug delivery via alternative administration routes. However, deep understanding of the NE manufacturing and functionalization fundamentals, and how they relate to the choice of administration route and pharmacological profile is still needed to ease the clinical translation of NEs. Here, we review the diversity of medical applications for NEs and how that governs their formulation, route of administration, and the emergence of increasing sophistication in NE design for specific application.

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          The kinetics of precipitation from supersaturated solid solutions

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            Tumor vascular permeability and the EPR effect in macromolecular therapeutics: a review

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              To exploit the tumor microenvironment: Passive and active tumor targeting of nanocarriers for anti-cancer drug delivery.

              Because of the particular characteristics of the tumor microenvironment and tumor angiogenesis, it is possible to design drug delivery systems that specifically target anti-cancer drugs to tumors. Most of the conventional chemotherapeutic agents have poor pharmacokinetics profiles and are distributed non-specifically in the body leading to systemic toxicity associated with serious side effects. Therefore, the development of drug delivery systems able to target the tumor site is becoming a real challenge that is currently addressed. Nanomedicine can reach tumor passively through the leaky vasculature surrounding the tumors by the Enhanced Permeability and Retention effect whereas ligands grafted at the surface of nanocarriers allow active targeting by binding to the receptors overexpressed by cancer cells or angiogenic endothelial cells. This review is divided into two parts: the first one describes the tumor microenvironment and the second one focuses on the exploitation and the understanding of these characteristics to design new drug delivery systems targeting the tumor. Delivery of conventional chemotherapeutic anti-cancer drugs is mainly discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nanomedicine
                Nanomedicine
                Future Medicine Ltd
                1743-5889
                1748-6963
                October 2018
                October 2018
                : 13
                : 19
                : 2507-2525
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Australian Institute for Bioengineering & Nanotechnology, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia
                [2 ]Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, King Abdul Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
                Article
                10.2217/nnm-2018-0088
                30265218
                8bfc5564-2ab3-4ed2-b6db-f0872632d1dc
                © 2018
                History

                Quantitative & Systems biology,Biophysics
                Quantitative & Systems biology, Biophysics

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