Chronic pain is a complicated condition which causes substantial physical, emotional, and financial impacts on individuals and society. However, due to high cost, lack of efficacy and safety problems, current treatments are insufficient. There is a clear unmet medical need for safe, nonaddictive and effective therapies in the management of pain. Epoxy-fatty acids (EpFAs), which are natural signaling molecules, play key roles in mediation of both inflammatory and neuropathic pain sensation. However, their molecular mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) rapidly converts EpFAs into less bioactive fatty acid diols in vivo; therefore, inhibition of sEH is an emerging therapeutic target to enhance the beneficial effect of natural EpFAs. In this review, we will discuss sEH inhibition as an analgesic strategy for pain management and the underlying molecular mechanisms.