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      Inhibition of the Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase as an Analgesic Strategy: A Review of Preclinical Evidence

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          Abstract

          Chronic pain is a complicated condition which causes substantial physical, emotional, and financial impacts on individuals and society. However, due to high cost, lack of efficacy and safety problems, current treatments are insufficient. There is a clear unmet medical need for safe, nonaddictive and effective therapies in the management of pain. Epoxy-fatty acids (EpFAs), which are natural signaling molecules, play key roles in mediation of both inflammatory and neuropathic pain sensation. However, their molecular mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) rapidly converts EpFAs into less bioactive fatty acid diols in vivo; therefore, inhibition of sEH is an emerging therapeutic target to enhance the beneficial effect of natural EpFAs. In this review, we will discuss sEH inhibition as an analgesic strategy for pain management and the underlying molecular mechanisms.

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          Most cited references 118

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          ER stress-induced cell death mechanisms.

          The endoplasmic-reticulum (ER) stress response constitutes a cellular process that is triggered by a variety of conditions that disturb folding of proteins in the ER. Eukaryotic cells have developed an evolutionarily conserved adaptive mechanism, the unfolded protein response (UPR), which aims to clear unfolded proteins and restore ER homeostasis. In cases where ER stress cannot be reversed, cellular functions deteriorate, often leading to cell death. Accumulating evidence implicates ER stress-induced cellular dysfunction and cell death as major contributors to many diseases, making modulators of ER stress pathways potentially attractive targets for therapeutics discovery. Here, we summarize recent advances in understanding the diversity of molecular mechanisms that govern ER stress signaling in health and disease. This article is part of a Special Section entitled: Cell Death Pathways. © 2013.
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            Endoplasmic reticulum stress: cell life and death decisions.

             C. Xu (2005)
            Disturbances in the normal functions of the ER lead to an evolutionarily conserved cell stress response, the unfolded protein response, which is aimed initially at compensating for damage but can eventually trigger cell death if ER dysfunction is severe or prolonged. The mechanisms by which ER stress leads to cell death remain enigmatic, with multiple potential participants described but little clarity about which specific death effectors dominate in particular cellular contexts. Important roles for ER-initiated cell death pathways have been recognized for several diseases, including hypoxia, ischemia/reperfusion injury, neurodegeneration, heart disease, and diabetes.
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              TRP channels.

              The TRP (Transient Receptor Potential) superfamily of cation channels is remarkable in that it displays greater diversity in activation mechanisms and selectivities than any other group of ion channels. The domain organizations of some TRP proteins are also unusual, as they consist of linked channel and enzyme domains. A unifying theme in this group is that TRP proteins play critical roles in sensory physiology, which include contributions to vision, taste, olfaction, hearing, touch, and thermo- and osmosensation. In addition, TRP channels enable individual cells to sense changes in their local environment. Many TRP channels are activated by a variety of different stimuli and function as signal integrators. The TRP superfamily is divided into seven subfamilies: the five group 1 TRPs (TRPC, TRPV, TRPM, TRPN, and TRPA) and two group 2 subfamilies (TRPP and TRPML). TRP channels are important for human health as mutations in at least four TRP channels underlie disease.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                jpr
                jpainres
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove
                1178-7090
                13 January 2021
                2021
                : 14
                : 61-72
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Entomology and Nematology, UC Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California Davis , Davis, CA 95616, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Bruce D Hammock Email bdhammock@ucdavis.edu
                Article
                241893
                10.2147/JPR.S241893
                7814236
                © 2021 Wang et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, References: 120, Pages: 12
                Categories
                Review

                Anesthesiology & Pain management

                molecular mechanisms, chronic pain,  epoxy fatty acids

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