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      Longitudinal modifiable risk and protective factors of internet gaming disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis


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          Background and aims

          The study aims to thoroughly understand the causal and precedent modifiable risk or protective factors for Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD), a newly defined and prevalent mental disorder.


          We performed a systematic review on quality-designed longitudinal studies based on five online databases: MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Embase, PubMed, and Web of Science. Studies were included in the meta-analysis if they addressed IGD, adopted longitudinal, prospective, or cohort study designs, presented modifiable factors of IGD, and reported the effect sizes for correlations. Pooled Pearson's correlations were calculated using the random effects model.


          Thirty-nine studies with 37,042 subjects were included. We identified 34 modifiable factors, including 23 intrapersonal factors (e.g., gaming time, loneliness, etc.), 10 interpersonal factors (e.g., peer relationship, social support, etc.), and 1 environmental factor (i.e., school engagement). Age, the male ratio, study region, and study years were significant moderators.

          Discussion and conclusions

          Intrapersonal factors were stronger predictors than interpersonal and environmental factors. It may imply that individual-based theories are more powerful to explain the development of IGD. Longitudinal research on the environmental factors of IGD was lacking; more studies are warranted. The identified modifiable factors would help to guide effective interventions for IGD reduction and prevention.

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          Most cited references90

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          Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test

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            A Coefficient of Agreement for Nominal Scales

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              The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate health care interventions: explanation and elaboration.

              Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are essential to summarize evidence relating to efficacy and safety of health care interventions accurately and reliably. The clarity and transparency of these reports, however, is not optimal. Poor reporting of systematic reviews diminishes their value to clinicians, policy makers, and other users. Since the development of the QUOROM (QUality Of Reporting Of Meta-analysis) Statement-a reporting guideline published in 1999-there have been several conceptual, methodological, and practical advances regarding the conduct and reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Also, reviews of published systematic reviews have found that key information about these studies is often poorly reported. Realizing these issues, an international group that included experienced authors and methodologists developed PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses) as an evolution of the original QUOROM guideline for systematic reviews and meta-analyses of evaluations of health care interventions. The PRISMA Statement consists of a 27-item checklist and a four-phase flow diagram. The checklist includes items deemed essential for transparent reporting of a systematic review. In this Explanation and Elaboration document, we explain the meaning and rationale for each checklist item. For each item, we include an example of good reporting and, where possible, references to relevant empirical studies and methodological literature. The PRISMA Statement, this document, and the associated Web site (www.prisma-statement.org) should be helpful resources to improve reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

                Author and article information

                Journal of Behavioral Addictions
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                24 May 2023
                29 June 2023
                : 12
                : 2
                : 375-392
                [1 ] Department of Social Work, Hong Kong Baptist University , Hong Kong, China
                [2 ] School of Humanities, Jinan University , Guangdong, China
                [3 ] The Jockey Club School of Public Health and Primary Care, Faculty of Medicine, Chinese University of Hong Kong , Hong Kong, China
                [4 ] Department of Psychology, Renmin University of China , China
                [5 ] Department of Applied Psychology, Lingnan University , Hong Kong, China
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author. E-mail: sherryxueyang@ 123456cuhk.edu.hk
                Author information
                © 2023 The Author(s)

                Open Access. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited, a link to the CC License is provided, and changes – if any – are indicated.

                : 03 January 2023
                : 09 April 2023
                : 30 April 2023
                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, Equations: 2, References: 92, Pages: 18
                Funded by: Health and Medical Research Fund
                Award ID: #16171001, #17180791
                Funded by: General Research Fund
                Award ID: #14607319, #14609820
                Funded by: Guangdong Basic and Applied Basic Research Foundation
                Award ID: #2022A1515111036

                Evolutionary Biology,Medicine,Psychology,Educational research & Statistics,Social & Behavioral Sciences
                modifiable factors,behavioural addiction,longitudinal studies,internet gaming disorder,meta-analysis


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