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      Clinical significance of HIV-1 coreceptor usage

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          Abstract

          The identification of phenotypically distinct HIV-1 variants with different prevalence during the progression of the disease has been one of the earliest discoveries in HIV-1 biology, but its relevance to AIDS pathogenesis remains only partially understood. The physiological basis for the phenotypic variability of HIV-1 was elucidated with the discovery of distinct coreceptors employed by the virus to infect susceptible cells. The role of the viral phenotype in the variable clinical course and treatment outcome of HIV-1 infection has been extensively investigated over the past two decades. In this review, we summarize the major findings on the clinical significance of the HIV-1 coreceptor usage.

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          Most cited references 148

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          Identification of RANTES, MIP-1 alpha, and MIP-1 beta as the major HIV-suppressive factors produced by CD8+ T cells.

           R. S. Arya,  R Gallo,  P Lusso (1995)
          Evidence suggests that CD8+ T lymphocytes are involved in the control of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in vivo, either by cytolytic mechanisms or by the release of HIV-suppressive factors (HIV-SF). The chemokines RANTES, MIP-1 alpha, and MIP-1 beta were identified as the major HIV-SF produced by CD8+ T cells. Two active proteins purified from the culture supernatant of an immortalized CD8+ T cell clone revealed sequence identity with human RANTES and MIP-1 alpha. RANTES, MIP-1 alpha, and MIP-1 beta were released by both immortalized and primary CD8+ T cells. HIV-SF activity produced by these cells was completely blocked by a combination of neutralizing antibodies against RANTES, MIP-1 alpha, and MIP-1 beta. Recombinant human RANTES, MIP-1 alpha, and MIP-1 beta induced a dose-dependent inhibition of different strains of HIV-1, HIV-2, and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). These data may have relevance for the prevention and therapy of AIDS.
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            HIV-1 entry cofactor: functional cDNA cloning of a seven-transmembrane, G protein-coupled receptor.

            A cofactor for HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus-type 1) fusion and entry was identified with the use of a novel functional complementary DNA (cDNA) cloning strategy. This protein, designated "fusin," is a putative G protein-coupled receptor with seven transmembrane segments. Recombinant fusin enabled CD4-expressing nonhuman cell types to support HIV-1 Env-mediated cell fusion and HIV-1 infection. Antibodies to fusin blocked cell fusion and infection with normal CD4-positive human target cells. Fusin messenger RNA levels correlated with HIV-1 permissiveness in diverse human cell types. Fusin acted preferentially for T cell line-tropic isolates, in comparison to its activity with macrophagetropic HIV-1 isolates.
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              Deciphering human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission and early envelope diversification by single-genome amplification and sequencing.

              Accurate identification of the transmitted virus and sequences evolving from it could be instrumental in elucidating the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and in developing vaccines, drugs, or microbicides to prevent infection. Here we describe an experimental approach to analyze HIV-1 env genes as intact genetic units amplified from plasma virion RNA by single-genome amplification (SGA), followed by direct sequencing of uncloned DNA amplicons. We show that this strategy precludes in vitro artifacts caused by Taq-induced nucleotide substitutions and template switching, provides an accurate representation of the env quasispecies in vivo, and has an overall error rate (including nucleotide misincorporation, insertion, and deletion) of less than 8 x 10(-5). Applying this method to the analysis of virus in plasma from 12 Zambian subjects from whom samples were obtained within 3 months of seroconversion, we show that transmitted or early founder viruses can be identified and that molecular pathways and rates of early env diversification can be defined. Specifically, we show that 8 of the 12 subjects were each infected by a single virus, while 4 others acquired more than one virus; that the rate of virus evolution in one subject during an 80-day period spanning seroconversion was 1.7 x 10(-5) substitutions per site per day; and that evidence of strong immunologic selection can be seen in Env and overlapping Rev sequences based on nonrandom accumulation of nonsynonymous mutations. We also compared the results of the SGA approach with those of more-conventional bulk PCR amplification methods performed on the same patient samples and found that the latter is associated with excessive rates of Taq-induced recombination, nucleotide misincorporation, template resampling, and cloning bias. These findings indicate that HIV-1 env genes, other viral genes, and even full-length viral genomes responsible for productive clinical infection can be identified by SGA analysis of plasma virus sampled at intervals typical in large-scale vaccine trials and that pathways of viral diversification and immune escape can be determined accurately.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Transl Med
                Journal of Translational Medicine
                BioMed Central
                1479-5876
                2011
                27 January 2011
                : 9
                : Suppl 1
                : S5
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Experimental Immunology, Sanquin Research, Landsteiner Laboratory, and Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam (CINIMA) at the Academic Medical Center of the University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 15, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
                [2 ]Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
                [3 ]Present address: Crucell Holland BV, Leiden, The Netherlands
                Article
                1479-5876-9-S1-S5
                10.1186/1479-5876-9-S1-S5
                3105505
                21284904
                Copyright ©2011 Schuitemaker et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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                Medicine

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