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Single-dose Intravenous Toxicology Testing of Daebohwalryeok Pharmcopuncture in Sprague-Dawley Rats

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      The aims of the study were to test the single-dose intravenous toxicity of Daebohwalryeok pharmacopuncture (DHRP) in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and to estimate the crude lethal dose.


      The experiments were conducted at Biotoxtech Co., a Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) laboratory, according to the GLP regulation and were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Biotoxtech Co. (Approval no: 110156). The rats were divided into three groups: DHRP was injected into the rats in the two test groups at doses of 10 mL/kg and 20 mL/kg, respectively, and normal saline solution was injected into the rats in the control group. Single doses of DHRP were injected intravenously into 6 week old SD rats (5 male and 5 female rats per group). General symptoms were observed and weights were measured during the 14 day observation period after the injection. After the observation period, necropsies were done. Then, histopathological tests were performed. Weight data were analyzed with a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) by using statistical analysis system (SAS, version 9.2).


      No deaths and no statistical significant weight changes were observed for either male or female SD rats in either the control or the test groups during the observation period. In addition, no treatment related general symptoms or necropsy abnormalities were observed. Histopathological results showed no DHRP related effects in the 20 mL/kg DHRP group for either male or female rats.


      Under the conditions of this study, the results from single-dose intravenous injections of DHRP showed that estimated lethal doses for both male and female rats were above 20 mL/kg.

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      Anti-fatigue activity of the water-soluble polysaccharides isolated from Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer.

      Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer (ginseng) is a well-known Chinese herb often used in Asian countries for physical strength development. Ginseng polysaccharides are its active component and have a lot of pharmaceutical activities. However, anti-fatigue activity of ginseng polysaccharides has not yet been tested. The current study was designed to evaluate the anti-fatigue activity of ginseng polysaccharides (WGP) in an animal test for fatigue and compare the activities between the neutral (WGPN) and acidic (WGPA) portion in an attempt to determine whether the medicinal uses are supported by pharmacological effects. WGP, WGPN and WGPA were orally administrated to mice once daily for 15 days. Anti-fatigue activity was assessed using the forced swim test (FST) and serum biochemical parameters were determined by autoanalyzer and commercially available kits. While all compounds were found to reduce immobility in the FST, the effect of WGPA was demonstrated in lower doses compared with WGP and WGPN. Moreover, the FST-induced reduction in glucose (GLU) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and increase in creatine phosphokinase (CK), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, all indicators of fatigue, were inhibited by the corresponding doses of WGP, WGPN and WGPA. Ginseng polysaccharides have anti-fatigue activity, also reflected in the effects on the physiological markers for fatigue. The acidic polysaccharide is more potent than the neutral polysaccharide. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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        Neuroprotective effects of ginsenoside Rd against oxygen-glucose deprivation in cultured hippocampal neurons.

        We previously found that ginsenoside Rd (GSRd), one of the main active ingredients in Panax Ginseng, attenuates H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative injury in PC12 cells. Mounting evidence suggests that the oxidative stress is crucially involved in the pathophysiologic process of ischemia. In the present study, we examined the protective role of GSRd to attenuate ischemic neuronal injury in vitro. Cultured hippocampal neurons were exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) for 2h followed by a 24-h reoxygenation. GSRd exhibited remarkable neuroprotection when presented during OGD and reoxygenation, which may be ascribed to its antioxidative properties by reducing the intracellular reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde production; increasing glutathione content; and enhancing the antioxidant enzymatic activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. Additionally, GSRd could stabilize the mitochondrial membrane potential and attenuate apoptotic death of hippocampal neurons after OGD exposure. These findings suggested that GSRd may be a potential neuroprotective agent for cerebral ischemic injury and should encourage further in vivo studies on stroke to explore the potential neuroprotective efficacy of GSRd.
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          Antidiabetic effects of malonyl ginsenosides from Panax ginseng on type 2 diabetic rats induced by high-fat diet and streptozotocin.

          Ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) has been recorded to treat 'Xiao-ke' (emaciation and thirst) symptom in many ancient Chinese medical literatures (such as 'Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing') for thousands of years. 'Xiao-ke' symptom, in general, indicates diabetes mellitus. Malonyl ginsenosides (MGR) are natural ginsenosides which exist in both fresh and air-dried ginseng. The objective of this study is to determine the antidiabetic function of MGR on type 2 diabetes. High fat diet-fed and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were treated with 50 and 100mg/kg/d of MGR or vehicle for 3 weeks. The effects of MGR on fasting blood glucose (FBG), intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT), serum insulin (SI), insulin tolerance test (ITT), body weight, total cholesterol (TC), and triglyceride (TG) levels in type 2 diabetic rats were measured. After 3 weeks of treatment, MGR administration showed significantly lower FBG levels compared to the diabetic control group. In glucose tolerance test, IPGTT data showed that both MGR 50 and 100mg/kg groups significantly increased the glucose disposal after glucose load. The ITT also showed improvement of insulin sensitivity during 120 min of insulin treatment. In addition, MGR reduced TG and TC contents while showed no effect on body weight in diabetic rats. The findings from this study suggest that MGR can alleviate hyperglycemia, hyperlipemia and insulin resistance of type 2 diabetes. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

            Author and article information

            [1 ]Department of Internal Medicine, College of Korean Medicine, Sangji University, Wonju, Korea
            [2 ]Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Korean Medicine, Daejeon University, Daejeon, Korea
            [3 ]Department of Acupuncture & Moxibustion Medicine, College of Korean Medicine, Sangji University, Wonju, Korea
            [4 ]Department of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, College of Korean Medicine, Sangji University, Wonju, Korea
            [5 ]Department of Ophthalmology, Otolaryngology, and Dermatology, Korean Medicine Hospital, Pusan National University, Yangsan, Korea
            [6 ]Research Center of the Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute, Seoul, Korea
            Author notes
            * Corresponding Author Kirok Kwon. Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute, 4F, Association of Korean Oriental Medicine B/D 26-27, Gayang-dong, Gangseo-gu, Seoul 157-200, Korea. Tel: +82-33-744-9304 Fax: +82-33-744-9305 E-mail:
            J Pharmacopuncture
            J Pharmacopuncture
            J Pharmacopunct
            Journal of Pharmacopuncture
            June 2015
            : 18
            : 2
            : 42-50
            26120487 4481398 10.3831/KPI.2015.18.014

            This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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