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      Current-induced spin-orbit torques in ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic systems

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          Most cited references 538

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          Quantum Spin Hall Effect in Graphene

           C. L. Kane,  E. Mele (2005)
          We study the effects of spin orbit interactions on the low energy electronic structure of a single plane of graphene. We find that in an experimentally accessible low temperature regime the symmetry allowed spin orbit potential converts graphene from an ideal two-dimensional semimetallic state to a quantum spin Hall insulator. This novel electronic state of matter is gapped in the bulk and supports the transport of spin and charge in gapless edge states that propagate at the sample boundaries. The edge states are nonchiral, but they are insensitive to disorder because their directionality is correlated with spin. The spin and charge conductances in these edge states are calculated and the effects of temperature, chemical potential, Rashba coupling, disorder, and symmetry breaking fields are discussed.
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            Magnetic domain-wall racetrack memory.

            Recent developments in the controlled movement of domain walls in magnetic nanowires by short pulses of spin-polarized current give promise of a nonvolatile memory device with the high performance and reliability of conventional solid-state memory but at the low cost of conventional magnetic disk drive storage. The racetrack memory described in this review comprises an array of magnetic nanowires arranged horizontally or vertically on a silicon chip. Individual spintronic reading and writing nanodevices are used to modify or read a train of approximately 10 to 100 domain walls, which store a series of data bits in each nanowire. This racetrack memory is an example of the move toward innately three-dimensional microelectronic devices.
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              Skyrmions on the track.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                RMPHAT
                Reviews of Modern Physics
                Rev. Mod. Phys.
                American Physical Society (APS)
                0034-6861
                1539-0756
                September 2019
                September 9 2019
                : 91
                : 3
                Article
                10.1103/RevModPhys.91.035004
                © 2019

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