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      Scytalopus Stilesi, A New Species of Tapaculo (Rhinocryptidae) From the Cordillera Central of Colombia

      1 , 2 , 3 , 2 , 4

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      The Auk

      Oxford University Press (OUP)

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          Abstract

          We describe Scytalopus stilesi, an overlooked species of tapaculo endemic to Colombia, on the basis of a series of eight specimens taken in 2002 and comparative analyses of its vocalizations, mitochondrial DNA sequences, and distribution. The new species ranges in the northern half of the Cordillera Central of the Colombian Andes in the Departments of Antioquia, Caldas, and Risaralda, in cloud forests between 1,420 and 2,130 m above sea level. The song, calls, and female song of the new species differ distinctly from those of all other known Scytalopus taxa. Phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of the cytochrome-b gene strongly suggest affinities with S. robbinsi of southwestern Ecuador and with two as-yet-undescribed tapaculos from the Colombian Andes. Scytalopus stilesi coexists locally with, though it is ecologically segregated from, S. atratus, S. latrans, and S. spillmanni. The mid-elevation premontane wet forests to which the new species is restricted have been subject to severe deforestation and fragmentation. The species is, however, relatively common in continuous mature-forest remnants, large primary-forest fragments, riparian forests, and tall secondary-forest patches. We employed a geographic information system (GIS) approach to model the potential distribution of the new species and assess its conservation status under the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) criteria. Scytalopus stilesi does not qualify as threatened according to those criteria, but it should be regarded as near threatened. The new species coexists with numerous threatened bird species that are in need of more effective conservation.

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          Most cited references 15

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          Historical Biogeography and Patterns of Differentiation within the South American Avifauna: Areas of Endemism

           Joel Cracraft (1985)
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            Evolution on a volcanic conveyor belt: using phylogeographic reconstructions and K-Ar-based ages of the Hawaiian Islands to estimate molecular evolutionary rates.

            The Hawaiian Islands form as the Pacific Plate moves over a 'hot spot' in the earth's mantle where magma extrudes through the crust to build huge shield volcanos. The islands subside and erode as the plate carries them to the north-west, eventually to become coral atolls and seamounts. Thus islands are ordered linearly by age, with the oldest islands in the north-west (e.g. Kauai at 5.1 Ma) and the youngest in the south-east (e.g. Hawaii at 0.43 Ma). K-Ar estimates of the date of an island's formation provide a maximum age for the taxa inhabiting the island. These ages can be used to calibrate rates of molecular change under the following assumptions: (i) K-Ar dates are accurate; (ii) tree topologies show that derivation of taxa parallels the timing of island formation; (iii) populations do not colonize long after island emergence; (iv) the coalescent point for sister taxa does not greatly predate the formation of the colonized younger island; (v) saturation effects and (vi) among-lineage rate variation are minimal or correctable; and (vii) unbiased standard errors of distances and regressions can be estimated from multiple pairwise comparisons. We use the approach to obtain overall corrected rate calibrations for: (i) part of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene in Hawaiian drepanidines (0.016 sequence divergence/Myr); (ii) the Yp1 gene in Hawaiian Drosophila (0.019/Myr Kambysellis et al. 1995); and (iii) parts of the mitochondrial 12S and 16S rRNA and tRNAval in Laupala crickets (0.024-0.102/Myr, Shaw 1996). We discuss the reliability of the estimates given the assumptions (i-vii) above and contrast the results with previous calibrations of Adh in Hawaiian Drosophila and chloroplast DNA in lobeliods.
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              Populations and Local Extinctions of Birds on Barro Colorado Island, Panama

               Edwin Willis (1974)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                The Auk
                Oxford University Press (OUP)
                1938-4254
                0004-8038
                April 01 2005
                April 01 2005
                April 01 2005
                April 01 2005
                : 122
                : 2
                : 445-463
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Instituto de Biología, Universidad de Antioquia, A.A. 1226, Medellín, Colombia
                [2 ]Department of Biology and International Center for Tropical Ecology, University of Missouri-St. Louis, 8001 Natural Bridge Road, St. Louis, Missouri 63121, USA
                [3 ]Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 15, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
                [4 ]Departamento de Ecología y Territorio, Facultad de Estudios Ambientales y Rurales, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Transversal 4 No. 42-00 Piso 8, Bogotá, Colombia
                Article
                10.1093/auk/122.2.445
                © 2005

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