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      Prevalence of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria among Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis Cases in Tertiary Care Centers in Northern India

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          Abstract

          The reports of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) associated with extrapulmonary diseases are increasing in tertiary care hospitals. Despite a significant increase in knowledge about NTM infections, they still represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. The aim of this study is to know the prevalence of NTN among extrapulmonary tuberculosis cases in tertiary care centers in Northern India. A total of 227 culture positive isolates from 756 cases were tested for niacin production and catalase assay. BIO-LINE SD Ag MPT64 TB test and final identification and differentiation between MTBC and different species of NTM were further confirmed by GenoType Mycobacterium CM/AS assay. 71 cases (9.3%) were positive for AFB by ZN staining and 227 cases (30.1%) were positive for mycobacteria by culture. Niacin production and catalase activity were negative in 62/227 (27.4%) strains and after using a panel of different biochemicals and final confirmation by GenoType Mycobacterium CM assay. Out of 227 cultures tested, 165 (72.6%) strains were confirmed as M. tuberculosis complex, and 62 (27.4%) were confirmed as NTM. The most common NTM species identified were M. fortuitum 17 (27.5%) and M. intracellulare 13 (20.9%). The rapid identification of NTM species may help in targeted therapy and management of the diseases.

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          Epidemiology of infection by nontuberculous mycobacteria.

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            Nontuberculous mycobacterial disease prevalence and risk factors: a changing epidemiology.

            Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are important human pathogens, yet little is known about disease prevalence in the United States. Reports suggest prevalence has increased, particularly in women, but population-based data to substantiate this are lacking. We sought to estimate NTM disease prevalence in Oregon, and describe disease by site, species, and patient demographic characteristics. We contacted laboratories that performed mycobacterial cultures on Oregon residents in 2005-2006. For each isolate, we obtained source, collection date, species, and patient demographics. We used the microbiologic component of the American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America's pulmonary NTM disease criteria to define cases of pulmonary NTM, and patients with isolates from a normally sterile site were classified as having extrapulmonary disease. We identified 933 patients with > or =1 NTM isolate. Of these, 527 (56%) met the case definition (annualized prevalence, 7.2 cases per 100,000 persons). Pulmonary cases predominated (5.6 cases per 100,000 persons), followed by skin/soft-tissue cases (0.9 cases per 100,000 persons). Mycobacterium avium complex was the most common species identified in pulmonary cases (4.7 cases per 100,000 persons). Pulmonary disease prevalence was significantly higher in women (6.4 cases per 100,000 persons) than men (4.7 cases per 100,000 persons) and was highest in persons aged >50 years (15.5 cases per 100,000 persons). NTM are frequently isolated from Oregon residents; more than one-half of all isolates likely represent true disease. Pulmonary NTM is most common among elderly women, and M. avium causes most disease. Future efforts to monitor disease trends should be undertaken, and efforts made to validate the use of the ATS/IDSA microbiologic criteria alone to predict pulmonary NTM disease.
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              Impact of genotypic studies on mycobacterial taxonomy: the new mycobacteria of the 1990s.

              The advancement of genetic techniques has greatly boosted taxonomic studies in recent years. Within the genus Mycobacterium, 42 new species have been detected since 1990, most of which were grown from clinical samples. Along with species for which relatively large numbers of strains have been reported, some of the new species of mycobacteria have been detected rarely or even only once. From the phenotypic point of view, among the new taxa, chromogens exceed nonchromogens while the numbers of slowly and rapidly growing species are equivalent. Whereas conventional identification tests were usually inconclusive, an important role was played by lipid analyses and in particular by high-performance liquid chromatography. Genotypic investigations based on sequencing of 16S rRNA gene have certainly made the most important contribution. The investigation of genetic relatedness led to the redistribution of the species previously included in the classically known categories of slow and rapid growers into new groupings. Within slow growers, the intermediate branch related to Mycobacterium simiae and the cluster of organisms related to Mycobacterium terrae have been differentiated; among rapid growers, the group of thermotolerant mycobacteria has emerged. The majority of species are resistant to isoniazid and, to a lesser extent, to rifampin. Many of the new species of mycobacteria are potentially pathogenic, and there are numerous reports of their involvement in diseases. Apart from disseminated and localized diseases in immunocompromised patients, the most frequent infections in immunocompetent people involve the lungs, skin, and, in children, cervical lymph nodes. The awareness of such new mycobacteria, far from being a merely speculative exercise, is therefore important for clinicians and microbiologists.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Biomed Res Int
                Biomed Res Int
                BMRI
                BioMed Research International
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                2314-6133
                2314-6141
                2015
                26 March 2015
                : 2015
                : 465403
                Affiliations
                1Department of Microbiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, Rajasthan 342005, India
                2Department of Pulmonary Medicine, King George Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh 226003, India
                3Department of Microbiology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh 226014, India
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Valeria Rolla

                Article
                10.1155/2015/465403
                4391508
                25883962
                912a5537-5918-4943-953a-1c8fa43deaab
                Copyright © 2015 A. K. Maurya et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 4 December 2014
                : 5 March 2015
                Categories
                Research Article

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