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      An integral geometry lemma and its applications: the nonlocality of the Pavlov equation and a tomographic problem with opaque parabolic objects

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          Abstract

          As in the case of soliton PDEs in 2+1 dimensions, the evolutionary form of integrable dispersionless multidimensional PDEs is non-local, and the proper choice of integration constants should be the one dictated by the associated Inverse Scattering Transform (IST). Using the recently made rigorous IST for vector fields associated with the so-called Pavlov equation \(v_{xt}+v_{yy}+v_xv_{xy}-v_yv_{xx}=0\), we have recently esatablished that, in the nonlocal part of its evolutionary form \(v_{t}= v_{x}v_{y}-\partial^{-1}_{x}\,\partial_{y}\,[v_{y}+v^2_{x}]\), the formal integral \(\partial^{-1}_{x}\) corresponding to the solutions of the Cauchy problem constructed by such an IST is the asymmetric integral \(-\int_x^{\infty}dx'\). In this paper we show that this results could be guessed in a simple way using a, to the best of our knowledge, novel integral geometry lemma. Such a lemma establishes that it is possible to express the integral of a fairly general and smooth function \(f(X,Y)\) over a parabola of the \((X,Y)\) plane in terms of the integrals of \(f(X,Y)\) over all straight lines non intersecting the parabola. A similar result, in which the parabola is replaced by the circle, is already known in the literature and finds applications in tomography. Indeed, in a two-dimensional linear tomographic problem with a convex opaque obstacle, only the integrals along the straight lines non-intersecting the obstacle are known, and in the class of potentials \(f(X,Y)\) with polynomial decay we do not have unique solvability of the inverse problem anymore. Therefore, for the problem with an obstacle, it is natural not to try to reconstruct the complete potential, but only some integral characteristics like the integral over the boundary of the obstacle. Due to the above two lemmas, this can be done, at the moment, for opaque bodies having as boundary a parabola and a circle (an ellipse).

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          Unsteady motion in transonic flow

           R. Timman (1964)
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            Nonlinear & Complex systems

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