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      Official American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Clinical Practice Guidelines: Diagnosis of Tuberculosis in Adults and Children

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          Abstract

          Individuals infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) may develop symptoms and signs of disease (tuberculosis disease) or may have no clinical evidence of disease (latent tuberculosis infection [LTBI]). Tuberculosis disease is a leading cause of infectious disease morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet many questions related to its diagnosis remain.

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          Molecular analysis of genetic differences between Mycobacterium bovis BCG and virulent M. bovis.

          The live attenuated bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine for the prevention of disease associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis was derived from the closely related virulent tubercle bacillus, Mycobacterium bovis. Although the BCG vaccine has been one of the most widely used vaccines in the world for over 40 years, the genetic basis of BCG's attenuation has never been elucidated. We employed subtractive genomic hybridization to identify genetic differences between virulent M. bovis and M. tuberculosis and avirulent BCG. Three distinct genomic regions of difference (designated RD1 to RD3) were found to be deleted from BCG, and the precise junctions and DNA sequence of each deletion were determined. RD3, a 9.3-kb genomic segment present in virulent laboratory strains of M. bovis and M. tuberculosis, was absent from BCG and 84% of virulent clinical isolates. RD2, a 10.7-kb DNA segment containing a novel repetitive element and the previously identified mpt-64 gene, was conserved in all virulent laboratory and clinical tubercle bacilli tested and was deleted only from substrains derived from the original BCG Pasteur strain after 1925. Thus, the RD2 deletion occurred after the original derivation of BCG. RD1, a 9.5-kb DNA segment found to be deleted from all BCG substrains, was conserved in all virulent laboratory and clinical isolates of M. bovis and M. tuberculosis tested. The reintroduction of RD1 into BCG repressed the expression of at least 10 proteins and resulted in a protein expression profile almost identical to that of virulent M. bovis and M. tuberculosis, as determined by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. These data indicate a role for RD1 in the regulation of multiple genetic loci, suggesting that the loss of virulence by BCG is due to a regulatory mutation. These findings may be applicable to the rational design of a new attenuated tuberculosis vaccine and the development of new diagnostic tests to distinguish BCG vaccination from tuberculosis infection.
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            Priorities for the treatment of latent tuberculosis infection in the United States.

            The prevention of active tuberculosis through the treatment of latent tuberculosis infection is a major element of the national strategy for eliminating tuberculosis in the United States. Targeted treatment for persons who are at the highest risk for reactivation tuberculosis will be needed to achieve this goal. A more precise assessment of the lifetime risk of reactivation tuberculosis, usually estimated at 5 to 10 percent, could help to identify patients who are at the highest risk and motivate them to complete treatment. Currently, the rate of completion of treatment is low. Published reports were reviewed to obtain estimates of the risk of tuberculosis among persons with a positive tuberculin skin test. Using these data, I constructed a model to estimate the lifetime risk of tuberculosis among persons with specific medical conditions. The lifetime risk of reactivation tuberculosis is 20 percent or more among most persons with induration of 10 mm or more on a tuberculin skin test and either human immunodeficiency virus infection or evidence of old, healed tuberculosis. The lifetime risk is 10 to 20 percent among persons with recent conversion of a tuberculin skin test and among most persons younger than 35 years of age who are receiving infliximab therapy and have induration of 15 mm or more on a tuberculin skin test. The risk is also 10 to 20 percent among children five years of age or younger who have induration of 10 mm or more on a tuberculin skin test. Persons with these characteristics should be targeted for intensive efforts to ensure full treatment of latent tuberculosis. Improved rates of completion of treatment among such persons could help to eliminate tuberculosis in the United States. Copyright 2004 Massachusetts Medical Society
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              Epidemiological benefits of more-effective tuberculosis vaccines, drugs, and diagnostics.

              The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation supports an ambitious portfolio of novel vaccines, drug regimens, and diagnostic tools for tuberculosis (TB). We elicited the expected efficacies and improvements of the novel interventions in discussions with the foundations managing their development. Using an age-structured mathematical model of TB, we explored the potential benefits of novel interventions under development and those not yet in the portfolio, focusing on the WHO Southeast Asia region. Neonatal vaccination with the portfolio vaccine decreases TB incidence by 39% to 52% by 2050. Drug regimens that shorten treatment duration and are efficacious against drug-resistant strains reduce incidence by 10-27%. New diagnostics reduce incidence by 13-42%. A triple combination of a portfolio vaccine, drug regimen, and diagnostics reduces incidence by 71%. A short mass vaccination catch-up campaign, not yet in the portfolio, to augment the triple combination, accelerates the decrease, preventing >30% more cases by 2050 than just the triple combination. New vaccines and drug regimens targeted at the vast reservoir of latently infected people, not in the portfolio, would reduce incidence by 37% and 82%, respectively. The combination of preventive latent therapy and a 2-month drug treatment regimen reduces incidence by 94%. Novel technologies in the pipeline would achieve substantial reductions in TB incidence, but not the Stop TB Partnership target for elimination. Elimination will require new delivery strategies, such as mass vaccination campaigns, and new products targeted at latently infected people.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Clinical Infectious Diseases
                CLINID
                Oxford University Press (OUP)
                1058-4838
                1537-6591
                January 04 2017
                January 15 2017
                : 64
                : 2
                : e1-e33
                Article
                10.1093/cid/ciw694
                27932390
                92bfc585-40e4-4195-922e-2a5d39d6286f
                © 2017

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