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      Is Intra-Arterial Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke Less Effective in Women than in Men?

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          Introduction: Stroke etiology and outcome after ischemic stroke differ between men and women. We examined if sex modifies the effect of intra-arterial treatment (IAT) in a randomized clinical trial of IAT for acute ischemic stroke in the Netherlands (MR CLEAN). Patients and Methods: The primary outcome was the score on the modified Rankin scale at 90 days. We tested for interaction between sex and treatment and estimated the treatment effect by sex with multiple ordinal logistic regression with adjustment for prognostic factors. Results: All 500 patients were included in the analysis; 292 (58.4%) were men. The treatment effect (adjusted common odds ratio) was 2.39 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.55-3.68] in men and 0.99 (95% CI 0.60-1.66) in women (p interaction = 0.016). In women, mortality was higher in the intervention group than in the control group (24 vs. 15%, p = 0.07). Serious adverse events occurred more often in women than in men undergoing intervention. There were no differences in neuro-imaging outcomes. Discussion and Conclusion: Contrary to other studies, we found a significant interaction between sex and treatment effect in the MR CLEAN trial. Pooled analyses of all published thrombectomy trials did not confirm this finding. In MR CLEAN, women seem to have a slightly more unfavorable profile, causing higher mortality and more serious adverse events, but insufficient to explain the absence of an overall effect. This suggests a play of chance and makes it clear that IAT should not be withheld in women.

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          MR CLEAN, a multicenter randomized clinical trial of endovascular treatment for acute ischemic stroke in the Netherlands: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

          Background Endovascular or intra-arterial treatment (IAT) increases the likelihood of recanalization in patients with acute ischemic stroke caused by a proximal intracranial arterial occlusion. However, a beneficial effect of IAT on functional recovery in patients with acute ischemic stroke remains unproven. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of IAT on functional outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Additionally, we aim to assess the safety of IAT, and the effect on recanalization of different mechanical treatment modalities. Methods/design A multicenter randomized clinical trial with blinded outcome assessment. The active comparison is IAT versus no IAT. IAT may consist of intra-arterial thrombolysis with alteplase or urokinase, mechanical treatment or both. Mechanical treatment refers to retraction, aspiration, sonolysis, or use of a retrievable stent (stent-retriever). Patients with a relevant intracranial proximal arterial occlusion of the anterior circulation, who can be treated within 6 hours after stroke onset, are eligible. Treatment effect will be estimated with ordinal logistic regression (shift analysis); 500 patients will be included in the trial for a power of 80% to detect a shift leading to a decrease in dependency in 10% of treated patients. The primary outcome is the score on the modified Rankin scale at 90 days. Secondary outcomes are the National Institutes of Health stroke scale score at 24 hours, vessel patency at 24 hours, infarct size on day 5, and the occurrence of major bleeding during the first 5 days. Discussion If IAT leads to a 10% absolute reduction in poor outcome after stroke, careful implementation of the intervention could save approximately 1% of all new stroke cases from death or disability annually. Trial registration NTR1804 (7 May 2009)/ISRCTN10888758 (24 July 2012). Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1745-6215-15-343) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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            Sex differences and stroke prevention.

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              Prevention and management of stroke in women.

              Stroke is the leading cause of acquired disability and the third leading cause of death in women worldwide. Sex differences in risk factors, treatment response and quality of life after stroke complicate stroke management in women. Women have an increased lifetime incidence of stroke compared to men, largely due to a sharp increase in stroke risk in older postmenopausal women. Women also have an increased lifetime prevalence of stroke risk factors, including hypertension and atrial fibrillation in postmenopausal women, as well as abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome in middle-aged women. Controversy continues over the risks of oral contraceptives, hormone therapy and surgical intervention for carotid stenosis in women. Pregnancy and the postpartum period represent a time of increased risk, presenting challenges to stroke management. Recognition of these issues is critical to improving acute care and functional recovery after stroke in women.

                Author and article information

                Interventional Neurology
                Intervent Neurol
                S. Karger AG (Basel, Switzerland karger@ 123456karger.com http://www.karger.com )
                September 2016
                01 July 2016
                : 5
                : 3-4
                : 174-178
                aErasmus MC University Medical Center, Rotterdam, bMaastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, cAcademic Medical Center, Amsterdam, and dLeiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
                INE20160053-4174 PMC5075805 Intervent Neurol 2016;5:174-178
                © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes as well as any distribution of modified material requires written permission. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 2, References: 13, Pages: 5
                Original Paper

                Medicine, General social science

                Outcome, Sex, Endovascular treatment, Cerebral infarction


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