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      Lack of appropriate stoichiometry: Strong evidence against an energetically important astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle in brain : Lactate Shuttling Does Not Satisfy Stoichiometry

      Journal of Neuroscience Research

      Wiley

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          Brain energy metabolism: focus on astrocyte-neuron metabolic cooperation.

          The energy requirements of the brain are very high, and tight regulatory mechanisms operate to ensure adequate spatial and temporal delivery of energy substrates in register with neuronal activity. Astrocytes-a type of glial cell-have emerged as active players in brain energy delivery, production, utilization, and storage. Our understanding of neuroenergetics is rapidly evolving from a "neurocentric" view to a more integrated picture involving an intense cooperativity between astrocytes and neurons. This review focuses on the cellular aspects of brain energy metabolism, with a particular emphasis on the metabolic interactions between neurons and astrocytes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Astrocyte-neuron lactate transport is required for long-term memory formation.

            We report that, in the rat hippocampus, learning leads to a significant increase in extracellular lactate levels that derive from glycogen, an energy reserve selectively localized in astrocytes. Astrocytic glycogen breakdown and lactate release are essential for long-term but not short-term memory formation, and for the maintenance of long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic strength elicited in vivo. Disrupting the expression of the astrocytic lactate transporters monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4) or MCT1 causes amnesia, which, like LTP impairment, is rescued by L-lactate but not equicaloric glucose. Disrupting the expression of the neuronal lactate transporter MCT2 also leads to amnesia that is unaffected by either L-lactate or glucose, suggesting that lactate import into neurons is necessary for long-term memory. Glycogenolysis and astrocytic lactate transporters are also critical for the induction of molecular changes required for memory formation, including the induction of phospho-CREB, Arc, and phospho-cofilin. We conclude that astrocyte-neuron lactate transport is required for long-term memory formation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              The [14C]deoxyglucose method for the measurement of local cerebral glucose utilization: theory, procedure, and normal values in the conscious and anesthetized albino rat.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Neuroscience Research
                Journal of Neuroscience Research
                Wiley
                03604012
                November 2017
                November 02 2017
                : 95
                : 11
                : 2103-2125
                Article
                10.1002/jnr.24015
                © 2017

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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